Introduction to Coin Collection with a blend of Urdu poetry as: Chiefa's love for a Coin.


Ishrath quathra hai darya main fana hona
Happiness is like raindrops which are lost in sea
Dard ka had sae guzarna hai dava ho jana
Pain when over reaches the limit becomes its own medicine


There lived a person called Chiefa near the empty quarter of Arabian desert. Very hot winds in summer and very cold season in winter with dust partials, hitting on his face used to hurt him throughout the year. Wandering on the heaps, plains and mountains of this desert was his aimless life. One day he saw a rock on which there was a strange language written on it. After a great efforts he managed to decode it and found out the value and importance of coins. His interest in coins got much deeper that eventually, started collecting them. This gave him a purpose of life, as Muhammad Iqbal says:


Arise, and soar with the sun's new-born rays, To breathe new life into dying nights and days


To obtain coins of various places was indeed a difficult task. He starved, faced many burdens, misery and pain during this hunt. He did not cared much about these problems and carried out his mission with zeal. He remembered what Muhammad Iqbal once said: 


Sitharon se aage jahan aur bhi hain
Beyond the stars there are Other worlds of light
Abhi ishq ke imthihan aur bhi hain
There are more trials of love, Besides those on earth

Tayhe, zindage se nahi ye fizaein
These spheres are not Empty of the pulse of life
Yahan sainkadoun karwaan aur bhi hain
There are a hundred forms of life, Latent in these spheres
Khanath na kar aalam rang va bu par
Be not content with this earth, Though it has a myriad colours
Chaman aur bhi, aashiyaan aur bhi hain
There are rose-embowered gardens, Ethereal abodes for thee
Agar kho gaya ek nash-e-man tou kia gham
Grieve not if thou losest This abode of sorrow
Maqamat-e-ahh o faughaan aur bhi hain
There are other abodes for thee, For the sighs of yearning and grief
Thu shaahin hai, parwaaz hai kaam theara
Thou art of eagle breed, Born for ethereal flights
Therae samne aasmaan aur bhi hain
Thou hast, beyond those narrowing skies, Loftier heavens to roam
Isi roze shub main, ulajh kar na rah jaa
Do not get entangled In these deceptive days and nights
Ki therae zamaan voh makaan aur bhi hain
Thou has other worlds, Beyond linear time and space
Gaye din ke thanha thaa main anjuman main
Those days are gone when I was lonely in the assembly
Yahan ab mera raazdaan aur bhi hain
Here now, my confidants are some more


Chiefa during his coin collection, learned few tips and information, that he likes to share:


Coins are little pieces of history. Beyond tracing dynastic lines, coins also provide insights into the idiosyncratic personalities of the rulers (for example by looking at their titles that are more self-aggrandizing, elevating themselves to the status of God) and are a testimony to the highly evolved art form of a certain periods in history. Coins proclaim the triumphs and collapses of past nations and civilizations. They show their nation's emblems, landmarks, personalities and commemorating various events of history. In fact there is always an history behind each coin. In general, it has been noticed that currently coins are seldom returned as change and are replaced by cheap candies and bubble (chewing) gums, which are readily accepted.

The form of Money was Barley in 9000 BCE, Salt in 2200 BCE, Cowry Shell in 1200 BCE, Silver and Gold in 500 BCE, Paper Currency in 1700 CE and now Credit Cards are commonly used since 2000 CE.

Today when regimes change, the media bring the news to the people. In early days coin did the job of the media. When one King died or was killed and a new King came to power, he immediately issued a coin to declare that he was the new monarch. This is how we have traced entire dynasties of Kings and Queens, who were otherwise not mentioned in any historical texts.


The first coins in the world around seventh century BC came into use, independently in three parts of the world and amazingly in three different forms.  In Lydia (now Turkey) lumps of electrum (a natural mixture of gold and silver) were stamped with a single punch affirming its weight and purity. This form of coins are still used with different mint marks. Approximately at the same time coinage developed in the Indus Valley (now Pakistan), consisting of bars of silver of a standard weight stamped with multiple punches. This form of currency continued to be used in much of India until the "western" style of coins were introduced by Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC.  In China coins evolved from barter implements sometime between the eighth and seventh centuries BC. The earliest coins took the form of familiar trade implements, the spade and the knife, yet lacked their functionality. The Chinese coins were made from Bronze. It is fascinating that these three separate economies developed the need for coins at approximately the same time, yet took separate paths to meet the needs.

There are many ways to collect coins. Two broad categories of collecting are known which are called "closed end" and "open end". A "closed end" collection is a definite series, such as US cents from 1909 to the present, or one coin from each type from a particular country. It is clear what coins belong in the collection, and you know when you have finished the collection. This style is very popular with American collectors. Another approach is the "open end" collection,  which is more traditional approach for collecting, in where one tries to collect a representative sample of coins in an area of interest, rather than each coin in a particular series. An example of an open end collection might be crown sized coins of the world, or coins of the Indian States from 1800 to 1947, or just modern world coin. One does not try to get one of everything in a series, but rather whatever is of interest within a fairly broad theme. This style of collecting can more easily accommodate changes in ones collecting interest. It can also be easier on ones budget since there are no "key coin" holes to fill. Many collectors combine some aspects of both, such as collecting a few representative coins and a definite series of each era. You might have given some thought to how you want to organize your collecting style.

There are different calendars used by various nations during the 19th and 20th century. Almost all Arabic speaking countries use the Islamic calendar which started on 16th July 622AD since Mohammad (P.B.U.H) migrated from Makkah to Medina. This calendar is based on lunar months, therefore it is 3% (approx. 10 days) shorter than the common era calendar. Some mints made minor differences in the style of the characters on Cash coins, which allowed the coins to be dated to the exact year they were made even though they did not carry a visible date. They are just represented by the characters of a particular range of years. Today, most of the coin carry the common era (CE) or AD date. Both Japan and Taiwan date their coins by the number of years the emperor or government has been in power. This style of coins are also seen on Ottoman Empire coins of Turkey and Egypt. Thailand coins are dated using the Buddhist Era (BE) started in 543BC. Iran used a Solar Calendar, represented by SH, which was also used in Afghanistan for some time. In 1976 Iran started to use another calendar Monarchic Solar era (MS) based on the foundation of Iranian monarchy in 559BC. The first year was observed on March 20, 1976 as MS2535. Israel uses Jewish Calendar represented by JE, although they use only the last three digits of the year and skip the first digit on their coins. This is the oldest calendar currently going on. It is more than 5000 years old, started on Oct 07, 3761BC. Hinduism have their own calendar, represented by Vikrama Samvat (VS). This calendar was started on Oct 18, 58BC. Nepal is currently using this calendar on its coins. Various Indian States in British rule with Hindus rulers used the same calendar, like Kutch (Bhuj mint). Similarly there are other calendars in the world like Ethiopia using Ethiopian era (EE) which started 7 years and 8 months after AD dating and Myanmar (Burma) using Chula-Sakarat (CS) calendar which started in 638AD. Recently Libya introduced a new calendar on their 1/4 Dinar 1369 P.D. (2001AD) coin. This P.D. calendar started on Muhammad's (P.B.U.H) death in 632AD based on AD calendar instead of AH calendar, as indicated on this coin 2001-1369 = 632. As a continuation based on this calendar Libya introduced a 1/2 Dinar coin dated 1372 P.D in 2004 AD.  A very interesting website on date conversion can be viewed at:

Somewhere there developed the idea that collecting coins is an investment. This is wrong. Collecting coins is entertainment. Many people who bought coins as an investment are unhappy because they did not turn a profit. On the other hand, those bought coins for their entertainment tend to be much happier. They now own a piece of history, and get enjoyment from admiring, studying and showing others their purchase. If that piece of history goes up in value, so much the better. If it does not, at least they have something to show for their money, which is more than can be said for many other forms of entertainment. After all, the pleasure one gains from watching a movie, going to a bar or playing golf is short-lived, and rarely shows a profit. However the pleasure one gains from studying or showing ones coins can be repeated many times, and who knows, maybe they will show a profit when it comes time to sell.

Besides the above strict definition, others extend it to include non-coins which may or may not be legal tenders such as cheques, credit cards and similar paper. These can also be considered notaphily or scripophily.
Notaphily is the study of paper money or banknotes. Scripophily is the study and collection of stocks and Bonds.
Philately is the study of revenue and postage stamps.

Exonumia is the study of coin-like objects such as token coins and medals, and other items used in place of legal currency or for commemoration. This includes elongated coins, encased coins, souvenir medallions, tags, badges, counterstamped coins, wooden nickels and other similar items. It is related to numismatics proper (concerned with coins which have been legal tender), and many coin collectors are also exonumists. The words exonumist and exonumia were coined in July 1960 by Russell Rulau, a recognized authority and author on the subject, and accepted by Webster's dictionary in 1965.

Usually people ask the value of a coin they own. People or coin collector beginners usually think that the coin is costly if it is very old. Well this is not the case. It depends on many factors like

The supply of the item, or how many are are around.

The demand for the item, or how many collectors want it.

The condition of an item.  For many coins this is the most important!

Bullion or exchange value. A gold or silver coin usually does not sell for a great deal less than its melt value.

1000 year old Chinese coins often sell for a dollar or two, because there are a lot of them around and there are not a lot of collectors for them. Coins of Ancient Rome in bronze or copper can be purchase for less than $10. On the other hand a 1913 Liberty Head Nickel is sold for over $1,000,000 because there are only five known. The demand is also important. A 1909-S VDB Lincoln cent has a mintage of 484,000 and sells for hundreds of dollars. Yet there are coins of many countries like Belize, Seychelles, Jamaica, etc with mintages of less than a tenth of that, yet the coins are sold for only a few dollars each, if that. Why?  Because there are a lot of collectors for United States Lincoln Cents, well over 484,000, so there is a strong demand for the coin that bids the price up. On the other hand there are very few collectors for coins of many smaller nations such as Belize or Seychelles, so there is a much larger supply of the coin than demand, so the coins go for relatively little, even though they are quite scarce. An Uncirculated coin that is absolutely flawless under magnification might bring 1000 times more than one which is Uncirculated, but shows some bag marks or cabinet friction. For other, less avidly series, collectors are not as concerned with quality, so there is a perfect coin brings little if any premium. Therefore it is recommended to keep your costly and rare coin capsulated, so that they do not get damage for what so ever reasons. Please also remember not to clean your coins as a naturally toned coin worth more than a cleaned one, as under magnification buyers will notice the hairlines and the valued will be dropped substantially.

When determining the face value of a foreign coin, remember many countries will no longer exchange their old coins for a variety of reasons. Sometimes inflation has eroded the value of the original coin and though they may be using the same monetary unit, the old money is no longer accepted. This is true in countries such as Brazil, France, Germany. Other countries will from time to time refuse to exchange certain coins, because of counterfeiting or because of a change in governments. This is true of certain recent French coins. Some countries make it extremely difficult, if not impossible to exchange their money. This true of the coins of the Marshall Islands. Though the coins have a "legal tender" equivalent to United States coins, the coins are not accepted in the Marshall Islands and are almost impossible to exchange. Even if you do have a coin that is exchangeable, do not expect to face value for it, unless the person buying it is about to dash off there and wants to spending some money. Some coins have multi-lingual like Yugoslavia, Palestine and pre 1971 Pakistan in the past and Cyprus, Sri Lanka, etc. in today's use. You will need to get the right book to determine the value of your coins. Sorry, but there is no on-line source that lists the value of coins. There are a few books written on world coin especially by Krause publication but the problem in these books is that coins pictures are overlapping (reverse and obverse sides on the coin), it mostly do not mention the edge lettering description, weight and purity of silver and gold coins from 1600 to 1900. Before buying particularly old coin, always study about the exact description, weight, diameter and approximately value in the market, as there are many forged / fake / replica coins circulating with the original ones.


Coin collecting needs a lot of patience and devoted time. It really make to scratch your head and also becomes a test to see your resistance in finding an original coin by comparing various sources. Ghalib Mirza Asadullah Khan once truly said:


Aah ko chaahiye ik 'umr asar hone tak,
It takes an age for sign to bear fruit,
Kaun jeeta hai teree zulf ke sar hone tak ?
Who lives long enough to vanquish your locks?

Daam har mauj mein hai halqa-e-sad-kaam-e-nahang,
A hundred crocodiles lie coiled in the web of every wave,
Dekhain kya guzre hai qatre pe guhar hone tak.
See what happens to the droplet ere it becomes a pearl.
Aashiqee sabr talab aur tamanna betaab,
Love demands patience, desires will not wait.
Dil ka kya rang karoon khoon-e-jigar hone tak ?
What hues should my heart reflect, till it bleeds to death?

Ham ne maana ke taghaful na karoge, lekin,
True, youíd respond without least delay,
Khaak ho jaayenge ham tumko khabar hone tak.
But by the time you come to know, Iíd be no more.
Partav-e-khur se hai shabnam ko fana'a ki taaleem,
The reflections of the sun heralds the dew drops doom,
Main bhee hoon ik inaayat ki nazar hone tak.
I too await your kindly glance.
Yak_nazar besh naheen fursat-e-hastee ghaafil,
Short is our span, as twinkling of an eye,
Garmi-e-bazm hai ik raqs-e-sharar hone tak.
I too await your kindly glance.
Gham-e-hastee ka 'Asad' kis'se ho juz marg ilaaz,
Who but death can cure, Asad, the sorrow of life,
Shamma'a har rang mein jaltee hai sahar hone tak.
A taper always shall burn, right till the dawn.


Old and rare coins usually worth 10% to 50% more certified than uncertified. Certified coins also sell much faster. If an uncertified coin will actually achieve a certain grade at PCGS or NGC, why didnít the selling dealer send it there himself and pocket the difference? Four times out of five, dealer-assessed grades are optimistic. Today, most coin buyers just starting out are well-informed enough to stick with PCGS or NGC graded coins Ė for a year or two. But then there is a tendency to feel confident, to feel that they have a good handle on grading. Never buy a coin certified by a service that is unfamiliar to you. For most buyers the best advice is to invest in coins that are scarce, but not so esoteric as to be difficult to evaluate. Unless you are a proven expert in the issue, avoid better date coins from 19th century series, and all patterns, colonials, error coins, etc. Stick with Type (common) coins, or series coins that trade widely by date. Experts are usually rare coin dealers as well. All rare coin dealers have biases. There are no exceptions. Dealers want your business. It doesn't matter if you just met the dealer or if you have known him for twenty years. Asking him what he thinks of a coin you have on approval from another dealer is like asking your local Ford dealer what he thinks of the Chevy you're test driving. Any person that actively buys and sells coins is prone to find fault with any coin deal that doesn't directly involve him. Any person that does not actively buy and sell coins probably does not have enough numismatic knowledge for their opinion to carry much validity. Where can you turn for an informed, unbiased opinion?

The most expensive US coins noticed are Gold $20 Saint-Gaudens 1933 for 7.6 million USD, Gold $10 Liberty Cap 1804 for 5 million USD, Silver Dollar 1804 for approx. 4.2 million, Nickel 5 cents 1913 for approx. 4 million USD and Gold $10 Coronet Head 1838 approx 1.5 million.

There is only one genuinely unbiased faction in all of rare coins: the grading services. PCGS and NGC grade coins for a living. Their only concern is accuracy. They know more about coins than dealers do and they are completely impartial. Rely on the judgment of PCGS or NGC. Consider refusing to do business with any dealer that is not a member of PNG. Although rare coin investment is far safer than it was before guaranteed third party grading, there is no reason to take unnecessary risks. Stick with companies that have achieved membership in PNG.

PQ (premium quality) coins are those that fall at the top of a grade; they often just miss the next grade up. Premium quality coins are more attractive than standard quality coins and can bring premium prices on occasion. However, since premium quality is a determination made by the owner of the coin and not the third party grading service, PQ is subjective. Although most dealers use restraint, a few coin sellers out there tend to call every coin they own premium quality and use the designation to get higher prices for run of the mill coins. Your best defense is your own eye. By comparing coin after coin, you can develop a taste for what is average quality for a grade and what is premium quality .On the price side, try not to pay more than 10% -15% extra for a PQ coin. This might preclude buying a few good deals, but it will save you enough in downside risk to more than make up for it. Some PCGS and NGC coins have become so generic as to be thought of as commodities, interchangeable with any other piece. Obviously, there isn't much incentive to buy PQ coins in an area of the market that has become generic. A PQ MS64 1881-S Morgan, for example, isn't going to bring a premium upon resale because the coin is too common for buyers to care much about individual quality.

Simple enough just concentrate on scarcity. Look at the truly scarce issues recommended by experts, latest catalogues or in the coin market. If you are now holding coins that are not sufficiently scarce to provide maximum appreciation, trade up immediately. Don't leave money meandering in common coins when it could possibly be earning much more in scarce coins. There are thousands of desire but not all are fulfilled in this world. As Ghalib's sadly expresses his life by saying:


Hazaaron khwahishain 'eisee ke har khwahish pe dam nikle
Thousands of desires, tantalizing one and all,
Bohot nikle mere armaan lekin fir bhee kam nikle
Many a wishes have I realized; yet I yearn for more

Dare kyoon mera qaatil kya rahega uskee gardan par
Why should my killer (lover) be afraid? No one will hold to her nape
Wo khoon, jo chashm-e-tar se 'umr bhar yoon dam-ba-dam nikle
The blood which will drip continuously through my eyes, all my life
Nikalna Khuld se aadam ka sunte aayain hain lekin
Often we have heard about Adams exile from Eden
Bohot beaabru hokar tere kooche se ham nikle
Humiliating much more was my exit from your door

Bharam khul jaaye zaalim tere qaamat ki daraazee ka
Tyrant, your true personality will become known to all
Agar is turra-e-pur-pech-o-kham ka pech-o-Kham nikle
If the curls of my hair slip through my turban!
Magar likhwaaye koee usko Khat, to hamse likhawaaye
Who wants a letter written out to her, me he should approach
Huee subah aur ghar se kaan par rakhkar qalam nikle
Every morning I step out of my home, sticking a pen behind my ear.
Huee is daur mein mansoob mujhse baada-aashaamee
That was the time, I turned to drinking
Fir aaya wo zamaana, jo jahaan se jaam-e-jam nikle
And then came the time, when my entire world was drinking
Huee jinse tavaqqo khastagee kee daad paane kee
Those from whom I expected, praise my wretched state (of being in love)
Wo hamse bhee ziyaada khasta-e-tegh-e-sitam nikle
Turned out to be victims, more injured with the same cruel sword (of love).
Mohabbat mein naheen hai farq jeene aur marne kaa
There is little difference in life and death when we are in love,
Usee ko dekh kar jeete hain jis kaafir pe dam nikle
The same infidel sustains our life, for whom we pine to die.

Zara kar jor seene par ki teer-e-pursitam nikle
Stamp my heart to remove the cruel arrow of her love
Jo wo nikle to dil nikle, jo dil nikle to dam nikle
For if the arrow comes out, with it will come my heart, and with my heart, comes out my life.
Khuda ke waaste parda na kaabe se uthaa zaalim
For god's sake, don't lift the cover off any secrets you tyrant
Kaheen 'eisa na ho yaan bhee wohee kaafir sanam nikle
As it might happen that the same infidel turns out to be my love!

Kahaan maikhaane ka darwaaza 'Ghalib' aur kahaan waaiz
The preacher and the taverns doors are things wide apart
Par itana jaante hain kal wo jaata tha ke ham nikle
Yet yesterday I saw him enter, as I was coming out


It has been proven by dealer sales records that three out of four coin buyers buy near the top and sell near the bottom of cycles. Why? Because most buyers are influenced more by the prevailing attitudes in the market than by detached, value-oriented reasoning. In 1983, MS65 Morgan dollars cost $175. A coin dealer sold about fifty of them each month. Two years later they cost $650 and investors tripped over themselves to get their hands on them. The same coin dealer sold two hundred pieces each month! That is the nature of markets. When Krugerrands cost $225 no one was interested in them. At $850, everybody and their brother had to own them. To a great extent, the perceived value of a coin is determined by its cost. When cheap, itís out of favor. Itís quiet, so buyers ignore it. When expensive, it becomes the hottest thing going. In reality, of course, the opposite is true. A coin is a good value when it is uninteresting and cheap, a poor one when hot. But it takes real fortitude to be a contrarian. Always adopt the donít lose philosophy. When you read about how well a coin has been performing, donít feel like you have to get your hands on one. Become that one-in-four buyer that realizes that most of the money has already been made when a coin is in vogue. Face the fact that you missed that one. So what? It didnít cost you anything out of pocket and there are always other coins to profit from. Buying a hot item too late can be much worse than not buying it at all. Donít buy whatís hot, buy whatís quiet and has potential to get hot. Timing is more important than ever before in coins. To maximize your profits, it is imperative that you buy at or near cyclical lows. Think of it this way: You canít buy low and sell high if you donít buy low first. Be alert and careful. Good luck in your hunt !

It is still believed that some of you might still ignore and go for coins without consulting the books and experts. For those Mirza Ghalib once prayed to God and requested, not to give him so much strength to speak that does not effect the hearts of the listeners. Here is the complete sonnet in Roman Urdu which Chiefa likes to share:


Hai baski her ek un ke ishare mein nishan aur
Kerte hain muhabbat to guzarta hai giran aur
Yaarab! woh na samjhe hain na samjhenge meri bat
De aur dil un ko, jo na de mujh ko zaban aur

Abro se hai kaya us nigahe naaz ko paiwand
Hai teer muqarrer magar uski hai kman aur
Tum shaer mein ho to hamein kaya gum, jab uthenge
Le ayenge bazaar se jaker dil-o-jaan aur
Her chand subuk dast huai but shikani mein
Hum hain to abhi rah mein hai sunge geran aur
Hai khoone jigar josh main, dil khol ke rota
Hote jo koi dedai khoon nabah fishan aur
Merta hon is awaz pe, her chand ki ser ud jaai
Jallad ko lakin woh kahe jaien ki "han' aur"
Logon ko hai khurshide jahan tab ka dhoka
Her roz dikhata hon ek dage nihan aur
Laita na agar dil tumhien daita, koi dam chain
Keta jo na merta koi din, aah-o-fugan aur
Pate nahin jab rah, to chud jate hain nale
Rukti hai mei taba to hoti hai rawan aur
Hain aur bhi duniya mein sukhanwer bahut achche
Kahte hain ki Ghalib ka andaze bayan aur


Grading Coins:

ANA grading standards recognize 11 grades for circulated coins (listed here with brief, generic descriptions):

  • AU-58, very choice about uncirculated: just traces of wear on a coin with nearly full luster and no major detracting contact marks
  • AU-55, choice about uncirculated: small traces of wear visible on the highest points
  • AU-50, about uncirculated: very light wear on the highest points; still has at least half of the original mint luster
  • EF-45 or XF-45, choice extremely fine: all design details are sharp; some mint luster remains, though perhaps only in "protected areas"
  • EF-40 or XF-40, extremely fine: slightly more wear than a "45"; traces of mint luster may show
  • VF-30, choice very fine: light even wear on high points, all lettering and design details are sharp
  • VF-20, very fine: most details are still well defined; high points are smooth
  • F-12, fine: major elements are still clear but details are worn away
  • VG-8, very good: major design elements, letters and numerals are worn but clear
  • G-4, good: major design elements are outlined but details are gone; for some series the date may not be sharp and the rim may not be complete.
  • AG-3, about good: heavily worn; date may be barely discernable

While coins more worn than AG are rarely collected, two additional grades are nevertheless used to characterize them:

  • F-2, fair -- very heavily worn; major portions may be completely smooth
  • P-1, poor, filler or cull -- barely recognizable

While not included in the ANA standards, intermediate grades like AU-53, VF-35, F-15 and G-6 are used by some dealers and grading services. When a grader believes a coin is better than the minimum requirements but not nice enough for the next higher grade "+" or "PQ" may be included (e.g. MS64PQ or VG+) or a range may be given (e.g. F-VF). When there are significant differences between the obverse and reverse sides, a split grade may be assigned. Split grades are denoted with a "/". For example, "F/VF" means that the obverse is F and the reverse is VF. The overall grade is often determined by the obverse. An intermediate value may be appropriate when the difference is significant, especially if the reverse is lower. A coin graded MS-60/61 would be considered to have an overall grade of MS-60.


The letter grading system beginning with the lowest grade Ė Basal State (also Poor (PO)), then continuing Fair (Fr), About or Almost Good (AG), Good (G), Very Good (VG), Fine (F), Very Fine (VF), Extra Fine (EF or XF), Almost or About Uncirculated (AU), Uncirculated (Unc) and up to Brilliant or Beautiful Uncirculated (BU). Gem Uncirculated was roughly equivalent in usage to BU at that time.

In 1986, PCGS (Professional Coin Grading Service) was incorporated. They authenticated, graded and encapsulated coins in a protective hard plastic shell. They used a combination of the two older systems putting letters and numbers together so that the grades became BS-1 (or PO-1), FR-2, AG-3, G-4, G-6, VG-8, VG-10, F-12, F-15, VF-20, VF-25, VF-30, VF-35, XF-40, XF-45, AU-50, AU-53, AU-55, AU-58, MS-60, MS-61, MS-62, MS-63, MS-64, MS-65, MS-66, MS-67, MS-68, MS-69 and MS-70. They also issued limited guarantees for the value of coins they had graded.


Chiefa read so much in details about coins that he decided to give up his entire collection to purchase the only Coin of his dream and love. Chiefa in the below poetry tries to express the true feelings for his love that, his love has no comparison with the paradise.


husn-e-mah, garche ba_hangaam-e-kamaal achcha hai
us'se mera mah-e-khursheed-e-jamaal achcha hai
bosa dete naheen aur dil pe hai har lahja nigaah
jee mein kehte hain, muft aaye to maal achcha hai
aur baazaar se le aaye agar toot gaya
saaghar-e-jam se mera jaam-e-sifaal achcha hai
be_talab dain to maza usme siwa milta hai
woh gada jisko na ho khoo-e-sawaal achcha hai
unke dekhe se jo aa jaatee hai munh par raunaq
woh samajhte hain ke beemaar ka haal achcha hai
dekhiye paate hain ushshaaq butoon se kya faiz ?
ik birahaman ne kaha hai, ke yeh saal achcha hai
ham_sukhan teshe ne farhaad ko sheereen se kiya
jis tarah ka bhee kisee mein ho kamaal achcha hai
qatra dariya mein jo mil jaaye to dariya ho jaaye
kaam achchaa hai woh, jiska ma'aal achcha hai
khijr sultaan ko rakhe khaaliq-e-akbar sar_sabz
shaah ke baagh mein yeh taaza nihaal achcha hai
hamko ma'aloom hai jannat ki haqeeqat lekin
dil ke khush rakhne ko, 'Ghalib' yeh khayaal achcha hai

Cleaning Coins: In general, collectible coins should be handled carefully to avoid the possibility of causing wear or introducing substances that may lead to spots or color changes. Many holders will provide adequate protection for ordinary handling. Before removing a coin from its holder, consider whether it's really necessary. Never touch an uncirculated or Proof coin anywhere but the edge. Fingerprints alone may reduce the coin's grade and consequently its value. Handling on the edge only is mandatory when examining another person's coins, regardless of grade. Get in the habit of picking up collectible coins by their edges, and it will soon become routine. Avoid holding numismatic items in front of your mouth. Small particles of moisture may eventually cause spots. When setting a coin down outside of a holder is necessary, place it on a clean, soft surface. A velvet pad is an ideal surface and essential for regular handling of valuable material. A clean soft cloth or clean piece of blank paper may be sufficient for less valuable items. Do not drag coins across any surfaces. If you are handling very valuable coins or lots of uncirculated and/or higher grade circulated coins, wearing clean white cloth or surgical gloves and a mask may be advisable. In most cases, the best answer is DO NOT CLEAN OR POLISH COINS. While you might think they'll look nicer if shiny, collectors prefer coins with an original appearance. Cleaning a coin may reduce its collector value by half or more. Even wiping with a soft cloth will cause small but undesirable scratches, which will reduce the coin's value.


After searching a lot for this coin, bearing lots of difficulties in life and passion, he managed to go an auction house to purchase it. He took with him his 15 years of coins collection. Before the auction started, Chiefa looked at the coin, which welcomed him proudly by:


In Aaankhoon Kii Mastii Ke Mastaane Hazaaron Hain
In Aaankhoon Se Vaabastaa Afasaane Hazaaron Hain
Ik Tum Hii Nahii Tanhaa, Ulafat Mein Merii Rusavaa
Is Shahar Mein Tum Jaise Diivaane Hazaaron Hain
Ik Sirf Ham Hii May Ko Aaankhoon Se Pilaate Hain
Kahane Ko To Duniyaa Mein Mayakhaane Hazaaron Hain
Is Shamm-E-Farozaan Ko Aaandhii Se Daraate Ho
Is Shamm-E-Farozaan Ke Paravaane Hazaaron Hain


In short the Coin wanted to explain Chiefa that you are not the only one is this city alone who is after my love. On hearing this Chiefa smiled on the strange behavior and character from the Coin and explained the difficulties he took to see it. Mirza Ghalib's famous couplets:


har ek baat pe kehte ho tum ke 'too kya hai' ?
tumhee kaho ke yeh andaaz-e-guftgoo kya hai ?

na shole mein yeh karishma na barq mein yeh ada
koee batao ki woh shokh-e-tund_khoo kya hai ?
yeh rashk hai ki wo hota hai ham_sukhan tumse
wagarna khauf-e-bad_aamozi-e-adoo kya hai ?
chipak raha hai badan par lahoo se pairaahan
hamaaree jeb ko ab haajat-e-rafoo kya hai ?
jalaa hai jicm jahaan dil bhee jal gaya hoga
kuredate ho jo ab raakh, justjoo kya hai ?
ragoon mein daudte firne ke ham nahee qaayal
jab aankh hee se na tapka to fir lahoo kya hai ?
woh cheez jiske liye hamko ho bahisht azeez
siwaay baada-e-gul_faam-e-mushkaboo kya hai ?
piyoon sharaab agar khum bhee dekh loon do chaar
yeh sheesha-o-qadah-o-kooza-o-suboo kya hai ?
rahee na taaqat-e-guftaar, aur agar ho bhee
to kis ummeed pe kahiye ke aarzoo kya hai ?
huaa hai shaah ka musaahib, fire hai itaraata
wagarna shehar mein 'Ghalib' kee aabroo kya hai ?

Some terminology used in Coin collection:
adjustment marks Marks caused by filing a planchet before striking to reduce its weight to the standard, as was sometimes done for early U.S. coinage.
album A book-like holder with slots for storing coins.
altered Intentionally modified after the minting process, such as by changing the date or by adding or removing a mintmark, usually in an attempt to deceive collectors (example: 1944-D Lincoln cent altered to appear to be a much more valuable 1914-D).
ancient A coin produced prior to about 500 CE.
artificial toning coloration added to a coin by treatment with chemicals or other "doctoring".
attribute n. A characteristic of a coin;
v. To identify a coin by determining the country of origin, denomination, series, date, mintmark and (if applicable) variety.
auction An offering to sell an individual item or group of items in which the price is determined by the highest bidder, sometimes with a reserve (minimum) price.
authentic / authentication An original, non-counterfeit coin; determination by an expert on whether or not a coin is authentic.
bag marks Small scratches and nicks resulting from movement of coins in the same bag (also known as contact marks or keg marks).
bank note Paper money issued by a bank.
bar A non-numismatic form of precious metal bullion.
bas relief Design elements are raised within depressions in the field.
billon An alloy of silver and another metal, usually copper, which is less than 50% silver.
bi-metallic A coin or coin-like object combining parts composed of two different metal alloys, such as the Canadian two dollar, Euro and two Euro coins.
bit pieces of eight (also known as Spanish Dollar) were physically cut into eighths; each piece is one bit.
blank A piece of metal being prepared for coinage before the rims have been raised by passing through the upsetting mill.
bourse A location where dealers buy and sell coins with each other and the public, such as at a coin show.
brockage A mirror image of the design from one side of a coin impressed on the opposite side - occasionally, a newly struck coin "sticks" to a die, causing the next coin struck to have a First Strike Mirror Brockage of the coin stuck to the die; by the second strike the mirror is distorted, and later strikes are termed Struck Through A Capped Die .
bullion A coin or other object composed primarily of a precious metal, with little or no value beyond that of the metal.
Bureau of Engraving and Printing An agency of the U.S. Treasury Department responsible for production of paper money.
business strike A coin struck for circulation.
Canadian Post confederation Canadian numismatics.
cameo A coin, usually struck as a Proof, with a frosted or satiny central device surrounded by a mirrorlike field.
  • The pattern of light reflected by flow lines of mint state coins, resembling spokes of a wheel.
  • Name given to the British pennies and two pence of 1797 due to their unusually broad rims.
  • A U.S. silver dollar.
certified coin A coin authenticated and graded by a professional service.
cherrypick To find and purchase a coin worth a premium over the seller's asking price (generally a rare die variety priced as a more common variety).
chop mark A symbol added to money by someone like money exchangers, other than the government which issued it to indicate authenticity.
circulating commemorative A commemorative coin issued on a particular event, through the usual distribution channels as regular money. In this cases it circulates side by side with the normal issues. Non-circulating commemoratives are not released into circulation, but rather sold directly to collectors.
circulated Denotes money that is no longer in mint state, generally as a result of normal handling and exchange.
clad Composed of more than one layer, such as the copper-nickel over copper composition of U.S. dimes, quarters, and halves minted presently.
clash mark(s) Outlines and/or traces of designs from the opposite side of a coin resulting from die clash.
cleaning any process that removes foreign substances, corrosion or toning, e.g. application of solvents, dipping, and rubbing with abrasive materials or substances.
cleaned coin while any coin subjected to a cleaning process could technically be considered cleaned, this term most commonly refers to those which have been abrasively cleaned (a coin which has been abrasively cleaned generally has a lower numismatic value than an otherwise comparable uncleaned specimen).
clip A coin, planchet or blank missing a portion of metal, caused by an error during blank production; types of clips include curved (most common), ragged, straight, eliptical, bowtie, disk and assay.
clipping Deliberate shearing or shaving from the edge of gold and silver coins; patterns and mottos are included on edges to discourage the practice.
COA Certificate of Authentication, usually a paper signed from the mint or grading societies as a guarantee that the coin is original with or without further details about the coin.
coin A piece of metal with a distinctive stamp and of a fixed value and weight issued by a government and used as money (source: Webster's New World Dictionary).
coin show An event where numismatic items are bought, sold, traded and often exhibited.
collar A device present in a coining press to restrict the outward flow of metal during striking and to put the design, if any, on the edge of the coin.
collection The numismatic holdings of an individual in total or of a particular type.
  • In general, a coin or token used in a colony.
  • In the United States, the term refers to coins and tokens struck during the colonial era by some of the colonies and by private manufacturers, as well as by the states during the first several years following the Declaration of Independence.
colorized indicates that paint, enamel or a color sticker has been applied after the minting process.
commemorative A coin with a design honoring or as a reminder of a specific person, place or event. Commemorative coins are normally struck for a limited period of time (several weeks to several years).
condition census A list of the finest known specimens of a particular coin date and/or variety.
contact marks Small surface scratches or nicks resulting from movement of coins in the same bag or bin.
  • An imitation of a coin or note made to circulate as if actually money.
  • An altered or non-genuine coin made to deceive collectors, usually a more valuable date or variety.
cud A raised lump of metal on a coin. Results from metal flow during striking into the space created when a piece of a die has broken off.
cull A coin that is extremely worn and/or damaged.
cupro-nickel (or copper-nickel) Composed of an alloy of copper and nickel, as for example U.S. 5 cent coins (other than half dimes) and Canadian 5 cent coins produced since 1982.
currency Paper money.
damage Physical change to a numismatic item, such as a scratch, nick, ding, cleaning, hole or pitting.
date The year(s) shown on a coin, usually the same as the year it was minted.
dealer A person or company that regularly buys and sells numismatic collectibles.
deep mirror prooflike (DMPL) Having highly reflective mirrorlike fields, similar to a coin struck as a Proof.
delamination Metal missing or retained but peeling from the surface due to incomplete bonding or impurities in the planchet.
denarius An ancient Roman silver coin weighing about 3 grams, roughly the same size as a U.S. dime but thicker.
denomination The face value of a coin.
denticles Tooth like raised features just inside the rim of some coins (also known as dentils).
design The devices, lettering, etc. appearing on a coin and their arrangement with respect to each other.
designer The creator of a coin design.
device A major design element, such as the bust of a person.
die A usually cylindrical piece of steel bearing at one end the incuse design of one side of a coin (except for coins with incuse detail, where the die details are in relief).
die chip A small fragment broken off from a die; metal flowing into the resulting hole during striking results in a small raised lump on the surface of the coin.
die clash Upper and lower dies coming together in a coin press without a planchet between them; design details may be partially impressed in the opposite dies and subsequently as mirror images on coins struck from the clashed dies.
die crack A narrow fissure in the surface of a die; coins struck with such a die have a narrow raised line corresponding to the crack.
die erosion Wear on a die from use in the minting process.
die flow lines see flow lines explaining below.
die state The condition of a die at a particular point in its life.
dipping Cleaning by immersion in a liquid capable of removing molecules from the surface, such as a solution containing thiourea. Dipping is a chemical process of removing toning. There are no abrasives in proper dipping, just chemical action to remove oxidation. This is opposed to scrubbing with an abrasive, leaving the coin "cleaned" or "harshly cleaned".
disme The original spelling of dime, 1/10 of a dollar.
double denomination A rare error in which a previously struck coin is restruck by the die pair of another denomination.
double die A dubious term sometimes intended to mean a doubled die coin and sometimes indicating machine doubling (because there is often a substantial difference in value between the two, a savvy buyer will be sure to determine which case is true for any coin described as such).
doubled die
  • A die with doubled device details, letters and/or numerals resulting from any of several possible differences between the multiple hub impressions during its manufacture.
  • A coin struck from such a die.
double eagle A U.S. gold coin with a face value of $20, first minted in 1849 and last minted in 1933.
drachma An ancient Greek silver coin weighing about 3 grams, roughly the same size as U.S. dime but thicker.
  • A U.S. gold coin with a face value of $10, first minted in 1795 and last minted in 1933.
  • The U.S. $50 face value gold bullion coin minted from 1986 to present.
edge The "third side" of a coin, encompassing the perimeter.
E Pluribus Unum "Out of many, one"; the motto on many U.S. coins.
engraver A person responsible for creating dies with specific designs.
  • Any unintentional deviation in the minting process resulting in one or more coins with different characteristics than intended.
  • A coin produced by such an unintentional deviation.
Essai / Essay Pattern coins of France and of French-speaking countries. They are also known to be written in various languages as proba, probe or prova.
exergue The lower part of a coin or medal, usually divided from the field by a line and often containing the date, mintmark or engraver's initial(s).
exonumia Tokens, medals and other non-monetary coin-like objects.
eye appeal Overall attractiveness (beauty is in the eye of the beholder).
face value The ordinary monetary worth of a coin or note at the time of issue.
ferrarities Rare standard die strikes in gold without official permission. Someone who owns a number of fakes. Named after Baron Philipp La Renotiere Von Ferrary, a great collector who also owned a number of fakes and forgeries.
field The flat background on a coin, medal or token.
  • Canadian 5 cents silver coin.
  • U.S. 3 cent silver coin.
flan British term for a planchet.
flip A pliable clear plastic holder normally used for a single coin.
flow lines Microscopic lines in the surface of a coin resulting from the outward flow of metal during striking.
fiat money Money that is not backed by specie and is legal tender by decree.
fractional currency Paper money with a face value of less than one dollar in USA and similarly elsewhere.
fugio cent The first coin issued by authority of the United States, produced by contractors in 1787.
galvano An epoxy coated plaster relief model of a coin, token or medal created by electrodeposition (much larger than the dies later created from it).
grade A term summarizing the overall condition of a coin or other numismatic item.
grading The process of evaluation leading to assignment of a grade.
Greysheet The Coin Dealer Newsletter, a price guide for U.S. coins reflecting typical market prices for dealer-to-dealer sight seen transactions.
hairlines Light scratches in the surface of a coin.
half cent A U.S. coin with a face value of 1/200th of a dollar first minted in 1793 and last minted in 1857.
half dime A U.S. coin with a face value of 5 cents issued with dates between 1794 and 1873; originally called a half disme.
half eagle A U.S. gold coin with a face value of $5 first minted in 1795 and last minted in 1929.
hobo nickel A coin (usually a U.S. Buffalo nickel) carved or otherwise modified into a substantially different design.
holed Having a hole drilled or punched through it, often so that it may be used for jewelry.
holder Any device designed for storage and sometimes display of numismatic items.
hub A steel bar used to make dies having the same raised design on one end as one side of the coins ultimately produced.
impaired proof A proof coin with wear or damage resulting from circulation or other handling.
incuse The opposite of relief -- design elements are impressed into the surface.
Indian Peace Medals Medals presented to native Americans by European governments, fur trading companies, Quakers, and, later, by US government representatives, as a show of friendship and peace.
key date Among the scarcest (and therefore most expensive) members of a coin series, e.g. the 1909-S VDB Lincoln cent or 1916-D Mercury dime.
Krause A numismatic publishing company (Krause Publications); this company's Standard Catalog of World Coins.
lamination flaw See above delamination.

large cent

  • A U.S. coin with a value of 1 cent, minted from 1793 to 1857, composed primarily of copper and larger in diameter than the current U.S. quarter.
  • A similar Canadian one cent coin issued from 1858 to 1920.
legal tender Money that may be legally offered in payment of an obligation and that a creditor must accept (source: Webster's New World Dictionary).
legend Lettering on a coin other than the denomination or nation which issued it.
loonie Popular name for the Canadian loon (one) dollar coin; first issued in 1987.
loupe A type of magnifying glass used by numismatists and jewelers.
luster The brilliance of a coin, resulting from reflection of light off die flow lines.
machine doubling Doubling of details resulting from loose dies during the minting process (generally considered to have no numismatic value).
mail bid An auction format in which bids are submitted by mail; the highest offer for each lot received by the closing date wins the lot (several other rules usually apply).
matte proof A proof coin with a granular (rather than mirrorlike) surface produced by dies treated to obtain a minutely etched surface.
medal A coin-like object struck to honor one or more persons or events depicted or mentioned in its design; an object awarded to persons in recognition of service or other accomplishment.
melt/melt value The worth of precious metal in a coin, determined by multiplying the amount of the metal it contains by the spot price of the metal.
mint A facility for manufacturing coins.
mintage The quantity of a denomination of coins produced at a mint during a period of time (usually one year).
mintmark Some letter(s) or symbol designating the mint which produced the item bearing it.
mint bloom The original surface of a newly minted coin.
mint set A specially packaged group of uncirculated coins from one or more mints of the same nation containing at least one coin for most or all of the denominations issued during a particular year.
mint state In the same condition as when delivered from the mint (natural toning excepted); uncirculated.
misplaced date One or more digits of a date punched away from the intended location, such as in the denticles or in the central design.
motto A phrase imprinted on a coin, for most U.S. coins "E PLURIBUS UNUM".
mule A coin struck from two dies not intended to be used together.
multiple strike A coin struck more than once as a result of not being properly ejected from the coining press.
natural toning Coloration resulting from chemical change on the surface during normal environmental exposure over a prolonged period.
net price A term signifying that the seller is unwilling to sell for less than the price marked.
numismatics The collection and study of coins, tokens, medals, paper money and other objects exchanged for goods and services or manufactured by similar methods.
numismatist A person who collects and/or studies numismatic items.
obol A small silver coin of ancient Greece, originally a day's wages for a rower on a galley or a citizen on jury duty.
obverse The front or "heads" side of a coin, often bearing a portrait and date.
off center Incorrectly centered during striking, resulting in part of the design missing (off the edge, sometimes referred as off flan).
original / original toning Having natural surfaces resulting from long exposure to ordinary environmental conditions; uncleaned.
overdate A coin struck from a die with at least one digit of the date repunched over a different digit, e.g. 1809/6 or 1942/1.
overgraded Designated with a higher grade than merited.
over mintmark One mintmark on top of a different mintmark, such as a 'D' over an 'S' (denoted D/S).
paper money Paper notes with standardized characteristics issued as money.
paranumismatica British term for exonumia.
patina A thin layer of naturally oxidized metal on the surface of a coin acquired with age (sometimes also referred as natural patina).
pattern A test piece for a new design, sometimes without a date.
pick up point An area where a feature, such as die doubling, is most evident.
piece of eight A former Spanish coin with a face value of eight reales; the U.S. dollar was originally valued at and tied to eight reales.
piedfort / piedforte A coin usually having same diameter but double thickness and weight than the normal version. The word "piedfort" is French and combines the two words "pied", meaning weight, and "fort", meaning strong or heavy; thus a piedfort is literally a "heavyweight" coin.
pitted Having a rough surface due to loss of metal by corrosion.
planchet A piece of metal prepared for coinage with raised rims but as yet unstruck.
planchet striation Tiny laminations or other natural imperfections in the planchet due to poor annealing or poor metal mix. This planchet condition existed before the strike, so is called "as struck" vs. after strike damage.
plugged Denotes that a holed coin has been filled.
porous Having a granular surface as the result of oxidation, most frequently found with older copper coins.
prestige set A set of coins produced by the U.S. Mint from 1983-84 and 1986-97 containing one or more proof commemorative coins released in the same year, as well as a proof cent, nickel, dime, quarter dollar and half dollar.
problem coin Any coin that has been cleaned or damaged or has other undesirable characteristics.
proof A coin specially manufactured to have extra sharp detail, mirrorlike fields and sometimes frosted or "cameo" devices, produced for sale to collectors at a premium or for exhibition or presentation.
prooflike Having mirrorlike fields, similar to a coin struck as a Proof.
proof like A coin specially manufactured by the Royal Canadian Mint with mirror fields.
proof set A specially packaged group of coins containing at least one of most or all of the denominations of proof coins struck by a nation in a particular year.
quarter eagle A U.S. gold coin with a face value of $2.50 first minted in 1796 and last minted in 1929.
  • An infrequently encountered or available item.
  • The number of known surviving specimens of a particular issue, as may be indicated by a rarity scale index.
rarity scale
  • A system for designating the relative number of specimens known to exist. The two most commonly used in numismatics are Sheldon's scale (ranging from R1 for common pieces to R8 for those that are unique or nearly so) and the Universal Rarity Scale developed by Q. David Bowers (with the lower designations, such as URS1, indicating greater rarity and higher numbers for more common items).
  • In general (like in Stephen Album's book) a commonly used scale is also in place from common to greater rarity coins as A = Abundant, C = Common, S = Scarce, R = Rare, RR = very Rare and RRR = extremely very Rare.
raw Not certified as authentic, graded and encapsulated in a sealed hard plastic holder by an independent service.
real A former basic monetary unit of Spain and Spanish colonies in the Americas.
Red Book A Guide Book of U.S. Coins, a retail price guide for U.S. coins published annually, originally written by R.S. Yeoman.
reeded edge An edge with raised parallel lines, also commonly known as grained, milled or segmented.
relief Features rising above the field.
repunched date A date with one or more of the digits punched more than once in different locations and/or orientations.
repunched mintmark (RPM) A mintmark punched more than once in different locations and/or orientations.
restrike A coin struck with authentic dies later than the date it bears.
reverse The back or "tails" side of a coin.
re-tooled fields careful mechanical abrasion / manipulation of the metal in the fields to remove scratched, graffiti (images or lettering scratched, scrawled, painted or marked in any manner), etc.
rim The outer edge of a coin, often raised to avoid premature wear.
round A disc shaped piece of precious metal bullion.
RY indicated as reignal number of year(s) of a person / government ruling with or without a frozen year. The frozen year indicated the year the person / government start ruling, e.g. AH 1327 RY 3 on Ottoman Coins or RY 31 on Japan and Taiwan coins.
scrip A note issued by and redeemable at a merchant or group of merchants.
series Coins of the same major design and denomination, including every combination of date and mintmark minted, e.g. Morgan dollars of USA.
Sheldon scale A numerical grading system ranging from 1 to 70 created by Dr. William H. Sheldon to denote proportional values of large cents minted from 1793 to 1814 and subsequently adapted as a general grading scale.
shinplaster Canadian fractional banknotes.
sight seen Available for examination to a potential buyer before a purchase decision is made.
sight unseen Not available for examination to a potential buyer before a purchase decision is made, as is usually the case with mail order transactions.
silver certificate A note (paper money) once redeemable for its face value in silver.
silver clad A clad coin with one layer containing silver, such as U.S. halves struck from 1965 to 1970.
silver eagle A coin produced by the U.S. mint beginning in 1986 containing one ounce of silver and having a nominal face value of $1 (not released for circulation).
slab A coin certified by a professional grading service as authentic and encapsulated in a sealed hard plastic holder also containing a label bearing the service's opinion of its grade and other information.
slider A coin with very slight traces of wear, such that it almost passes for an uncirculated specimen.
slug A slug is a counterfeit coin that is used to make illegal purchases from a coin-operated device, such as a vending machine, pay phone, parking meter, transit farebox, copy machine, coin laundry, gaming machine or arcade game. By resembling various features of a genuine coin, including the weight, size and shape, a slug is designed to trick the machine into accepting it like a real coin. In some cases, a slug can be a genuine coin used in another country, with or without knowledge of the user. Washers were common slugs before the 1980's.
specie Precious metal (usually gold and silver).
split grade Different grades for the obverse and reverse sides.
  • Short for spot price.
  • A small area of corrosion or foreign substance.
spot price The market price for immediate delivery of a commodity, such as a precious metal.
  • The difference between buy and sell prices for the same item(s) of a dealer, broker, etc.
  • The extent of separation between impressions on a doubled die.
stella A U.S. gold coin pattern with a face value of $4 minted in 1879 and 1880.
striations Incuse marks caused by rolling bars during planchet production.
  • The process of impressing the design from a die into a planchet to make a coin, token or medal.
  • The degree to which details are transferred during this process (as in weak strike, full strike, etc.)
strike doubling See above machine doubling.
territorial gold coins pieces of various shapes, denominations and intrinsic worth privately struck in the general area of recently discovered gold deposits for the needs of local commerce.
tetradrachma An ancient Greek silver coin weighing about 13 to 17 grams, roughly the same size as a U.S. quarter but three times thicker.
thumbing The rubbing of skin oil onto a coin in an attempt to hide contact marks.
  • A coin-like object redeemable for a particular product or service, such as transportation on a bus or subway.
  • An unofficial coin issued by a business or local government to be used as small change, e.g., in 17th-19th century Britain, and in France during the 20th century.
toning Color acquired from chemical change on the surface.
Trade dollar
  • A U.S. coin with a face value of $1 minted from 1873 through 1885 specifically for commerce in the Orient.
  • A U.K. coin with a face value of $1 minted from 1895 through 1935 specifically for commerce in the Orient.
trime A U.S. coin with a face value of 3 cents minted in predominantly silver alloys from 1851-1873.
tube A plastic or cardboard container designed for storing a roll or other quantity of coins of the same size.
type coin Any coin of a particular design and denomination, usually one of the more common dates.
type set A collection of coins of various designs; rather than try to complete the series, the goal of the type collector is to obtain at least one example of several different types.
uncirculated Never circulated; without any wear.
VAM Any variety of U.S. silver dollar described in the book Morgan and Peace Dollars by Van Allen and Mallis.
variety Any coin struck from a die pair that differs from others with the same date and mintmark, such as one exhibiting die doubling, different style letters or numerals, or a repunched mintmark.


It is a green or greenish blue deposit patina of copper carbonates on copper, brass, and bronze that is caused by atmospheric corrosion. Green colour deposit also appears on coins due to acid tests to check if they are having silver contents (only silver coin turns black on acid tests).
want list A tabulation of collectibles sought by a collector, often including requirements for condition and/or price.
water mark A design put into paper at the manufacuring stage by pressing it while wet between rollers bearing the design.
wear Metal lost during handling and contact with other objects.
whizzing Alteration by mechanical polishing to produce a shiny surface.
world coins Coins issued by various nations, as in a collection comprised of coins thereof.


As the auction started on this coin, Chiefs's expected value was no where near the final price of this coin. Chiefa's entire collection was just 1% of the final auctioned value. Chiefa was extremely disappointed as he wanted to have his love: the Coin. Anyhow what more he could do, his deeply mediocrity can be described by Ghalib's excellent compilation of well structured couplets.


Yeh na thi hamari khismath ke vissaale yaar hotha
It was not my destiny to have a confidential companion
Agar aur jeethe rahthae yahi inthezaar hotha
Were I to live longer this would still be a longing
Therae vaade per jiyae ham, thoe yeh jaan jhoot jaana
If I am living based on your promises, then consider it as lie.
Ke khushi se mar na jaathae agar aethibaar hotha?
How gleefully we would have died, were you be worthy of trust.
Theri nazuki sae jaana ke bandha tha ahad bauda
From your tenderness we observed, how unique is existence.
Kabhi thu na thoad saktha. Agar usthuvaar hotha
You could not have ravaged it. If only were it to be stronger.
Koyi maera dil se poochae thaere theer neem-kash koe
Only some one were to ask my heart about your semi deadly invading looks.
Yeh khalish kahan se hoathi jo jigar ke paar hotha
Where they had the intensity that they could pass through my heart?
Yeh kahan ki dosthi hai ke banae hain dosth nasseh
What kind of friendship is this, that my companions have turned preachers.
Koyi charah saaz hotha, koyi gamgasar hotha
I wish some were curers or some were to be comforters
Rage sang sae tapaktha voh lahu ke phir na thamtha
From the hardened vein the blood were to flow unceasingly
Jise gum samajh rahe ho yeh agar sharaar hotha
What do you think is sorrow were it to be a spark of fire
Gam agarche jaan gusal hai. Pa bachain kahan keh dil hai
If misery is destroyer of life were heart is tranquil.
Gham ishq agar na hotha. Ghame rozgaar hotha
Were love not to lead to affliction grief would be the daily earnings.
Kahun jis se mai ke kya hai shabe gam buri bala hai
To whom do I tell that nights of lamentations are a curse
Mujhe kya bura tha marna. Agar yek baar hotha
What was so difficult for me to die, were it to be only once.
Huve mur ke hum jo ruswa huve kyun na garke darya
My death became my infamy, why did I not drown in sea.
Na kabhi janaza uttha na kahin mazaar hotha
No bier to carry my corpse, nor cost of a grave to be build.

Use kaun dekh saktha ke yagana hai who yaktha
Who could have seen whether it is singular or unique.
Jo duvi ki boo bhi hothi tho kahin do chaar hotha
Were it to be fragrance of mating still it would a couple or guardable.
Yeh masaile thassauuf yeh thera bayaan Ghalib
These mystic propositions your testimony of Ghalib
Thujhe hum vali samajhthe jo na baada-kwaar hotha
A prophet we would honour were you not be inebriate


Chiefa's life after this incident came to a halt. He stood there in grief. He though of himself, why is this life and world for ? He exclaimed in sorrow with pain and misery, the most famous Ghalib's couplets.


Na thaa kuchh to Khudaa thaa, kuchh na hotaa to Khudaa hotaa
God was, when it was aught, God would still be, even if it might have been naught
Duboyaa mujh ko hone ne, na hotaa main to kyaa hotaa
Drowned I am in my ego, What would have happened if "I" was not

huaa jab Gam se yuuon behis to Gam kyaa sar ke katane kaa
Laden with distraught and feeling apathetic, do I have to worry about the head being severed
na hotaa gar judaa tan se to zaano par dharaa hotaa
If it did not severe from the body, The head would have simply reposed on the lap
huii muddat ke 'Ghalib' mar gayaa par yaad aataa hai
It has been ages that "Ghalib" died, Yet the memories linger on
wo har ek baat pe kahanaa ke yuuon hotaa to kyaa hotaa
His saying this on every occasion, If it was "like this" then what it would be !

When dealing with coins, a reference is usually used to avoid discussing basic details and attributes. It makes it easy for the coin collectors to focus on a particular type of coin. Below is a list of various book reference that are known by many coin collectors. Some of these books have even cross-reference of other books as well.
C# Author: William D. Craig for "Coins of the World" of 1750-1850 period, generally 3rd edition.
Dav# Author: John S. Davenport for "European Crowns" published by Spink & Son Ltd., London.
FR# Author: Robert Friedberg for "Gold Coins of the World" or/and "Coins of the British World".
HMZ# HMZ Katalog - Schweiz & Liechtenstein. Author: Ruedi Kunzmann / JŁrg Richter. Published by Jost-Druck AG and it is written in German. It is arranged alphabetically by canton, chronologically by century and denomination in descending order.
K# Author: E. Kann for Catalog of Chinese Coins and coins issued under the Chinese sphere of influence.
KM# Authors:- Chester L. Krause, Clifford Mishler and Colin R. Bruce II for "Standard Catalog of World Coins" Publisher: Krause publication, mainly available in five volumes from 1600 to present.
P# Author: Major Fred Pridmore for "Studies of British Colonial Coinage".
SA# Author: Stephen Album for "A Checklist of Islamic Coins", generally 2nd edition.
SG# Author: Stan Goron, J. P. Goenka and Michael Robinson for "The Coins of the Indian Sultanates: Covering the Area of Present-Day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh". Publisher: Munshirm Manoharlal Pub Pvt Ltd.
Su# Author: T.S. Hsu for Catalog of Chinese Coins
V# Author: W.H. Valentine for "References on the Modern copper coins of the Muhammadan States".
Various Author: Russell Rulau for "Latin American Tokens" and "Standard Catalog of Hard Times Token 1832-1844".
X# Authors: Colin R. Bruce II, edited by Tom Michael & George Cuhaj for "Unusual World Coins". Publisher: Krause publication.
Y# Author: R.S. Yeoman for Modern World coins and Current Coins of the world.


Chiefa then turned to his love, the Coin, and compared Mirza's Ghalib's sufferings with his and left the auction house. Enjoy Ghalib's "Guzarishe Musannif Ba Huzoore Shah (Petition of a composer to your sovereign Highness".


Ay shahen shahe aasman aurang
Oh, your Highness, Adorner of this skies
Ay jahandare aafthab aasar
Oh, Ruler of Sunís domain
Tha mai yek be navaye gosha nashin
I was a destitute recluse
Tha mai ek dardmand seena fagaar
a miserable afflicted
Thumne mujh ko jo aabaroo bakshi
You did confer on me grace
Huvi meri vok garmi baazar
That made my ware marketable
Ke huva mujh sa zarra naacheez
It made a non-entity like me
Roshnaaso savabith vassyyar
Shining star to the traveler
Garcha uz rooye nanga be hunari
Though I am a noted soul unskilled
Hoon khud apni nazar mae ithna quwar
I am in my own estimation very wretched
Ke gar apne ko mai kahoon khaki
If I say that I am just dust
Jaantha hoon ke aaye khak ku aar
I know even dust will feel disgrace
Shaad hoon lakin apne jee mae kah loon
Happy I am but in my own heart I know
Baadshah ka gulame kaar guzra
Your majestyís devout and servile servant
Khana saad aur mureed aur muddah
Child of a slave, a diciple and an eulogist
Tha hamesha se yeh araseena nigaar
I was ever a humble petitioner
Baare naukar bhi hogaya sad shukar
In short, servant that I am, hundred times grateful
Nishathen ho gayin musshqqas chaar
Relationship became a distinguished path
Na kahun aap se tho kis se kahoon
If I do not tell you who do I tell
Muddaye sunrori alizhar
I am an accused self proclaimed
Piro murshid ! Agarche mujh ko nahin
A saint or a teacher, if I do not have
Zaukh aaraishe saro dasthaar
Taste for beauty is the turban on my head
Kuch tho jaade mae chahiye aakhir
At least something is necessary for winter
Thaana de baade zamhareer aazar
Till then some spirits to bear extreme cold and ailments
Kyun darkaar ho mujhe poshish
Why not provide me with wearing apparel
Jism rakhta hun, hai agarche nazaar
The body I possess is so lean
Kuch kharee da nahin hai ab ke saal
I have not bought anything for this year
Kuch banaya nahin hai ab ke baar
I have not got anything stitched this year
Raath ko aag aur din ko dhoop
Night so hot and days so warm
Bhaad mae jaaye aysi lailo nahaar
Oh damnation these nights and days
Aag thaape kahan talak insaan
Fire, how long can man endure
Dhoop khavay thalak insaan
How long the living can fry in the sun
Dhoop ki thaabish, aag ki garmi?
Scorching of the sun, heat of fire?
Vakhina rabbana azabul alannkaar!
The fire works of day of reckoning!
Meri thankhwah jo mukharrar
My wages which are fixed
Us ki milne ka hai ajab hanjaar
The receipt of which has strange short-cut
Rasm hai murde ki chhe maahi yek
Tradition is the dead have six monthly account
Khalak ka hai is chalan pe madaar
The entire creation follows this rule
Mujh ko dekhoon tho, hum yeh khaide hayaath
When I look at myself, I am imprisoned for life
Aur che maahi ho saal men do baar!
And six months appear in a year only twice!
Baska letha hun har mahine kharaz
Every month do I contract debts
Aur rahthi hai sood ki thakraar
There is always the dispute of interest
Meri thankwah main thakhai ka
My wages when distributed
Hogaya hai shareek sahukar
There is a claim ant joined, the money lender
Aaj mujh sa nahin zamaane main
Today there is none in this age
Saair naguz-goye khush gufthaar
A poet of such esteem in discourse
Razm ki daastan gar suniye
The battle tales if you listen
Hai zabaab meri thukh jowhardaar
My tongue is a sparkling blade of sword
Bazm ka ithizaam gar keejiye
The battle tales if you listen
Hai khalm meri abar goharbaar
My pen draws clouds and it rains pearls
Zulm hai gar na do sukhan ke daad
Injustice it is if my poetry is not praised
Khahar hai karo na mujh ko pyar
Punishment it is if I am loved by none
Aap ka banda aur phiroon nanga?
Your subject and I wander naked?
Aap ka naukar, aur khavun udhaar?
Your servant and live on loans?
Meri thankwah kijiye mah ba mah
My wages do pay month to month
Tha na mujhko zindagi dushwaar
Until to me life becomes unsustainable
Khatham kartha hoon ub duwa pw kalam:
End do I this petition with a prayer
Shairi se nahin mujhe sarokaar
In poetry I have no more confidence
Tum salamat raho hazar baras
You be well for thousands of years
Har baras ke ho din pachas hazar
For each year, the days be fifty thousand


Chiefa used the above Ghalib's poetry to explain that his salary is not enough to get his love and desires, as most of his monthly salary  is taken away for the loan he has taken to survive his life. His life is continuously going in hard struggle and difficult crises. He does not see any improvement or hope to overcome these burdens. As living being die and things remain in this world for generations. His life has to end as well. In the end he says that in poetry he has no more confidence to explain his situation and wish the Coin to see thousands of years more of its heritage and prestigious life ! 

Chiefa has never revealed the details about his love: the Coin. Some coin collectors and analysts believe that the Coin,  Chiefa loved to purchase or obtain, might be the United States silver Dollar dated 1804. As this discussion will lead to nowhere, so let it be a secret. The whatsoever collected Chiefa Coins are still under mystery whether he managed to bring them back with a broken heart, or was it was passed on to his next generation, or was it got stolen or has it become a treasure, yet to be discovered near the empty quarter of Arabian Desert ?

bichra kuch is ada se ki rut ha badal gai
ik shakhs saare shahr ko viran kar gaya - Khalid Sharif

Yeh kya ke roz ek sa gham ek si umeed
Is ranj-e-bekhumar ki ab inteha bhi ho! - Nasir Kazmi ?

nahin aati to yaad un ki mahinon tak nahin aati
magar jab yaad aate hain to aksar yaad aate hain - Hasrat Mohani

kis kis ko bataenge judai ka sabab ham
tu mujh se khafa hai to zamane ke liye aa - Ahmad Faraz

maana ki teri deed ke qabil nahin huun main
tu mera shauq dekh, mera intizar dekh - Muhammad Iqbal

uos gali ne ye sun ke sabr kiya
jaane vaale yahan ke tha hi nahin - John Elia


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Chiefa Coins