Curaçao
 

 
Curaçao [Dutch: Curaçao; Papiamentu: Kòrsou] is an island country in the southern Caribbean Sea, approximately 65 kilometers (40 mi) north of the Venezuelan coast, that is a constituent country (Dutch: land) of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Formally called the Country of Curaçao, it includes the main island and the uninhabited island of Klein Curaçao (Little Curaçao). It has an area of 444 km2 (171 sq mi). Capital: Willemstad (Fort Amsterdam 1634 - c.1674; Santa Ana 1539 - 1634).
 
                26 Jul 1499  Discovered and claimed for Spain by Alonso de Ojeda, named
                              Isla de los Gigantes (Island of the Giants).
                       1502  Part of New Andalucia (from 1524, New Granada) as Captaincy
                              of Curaçao (incl. Aruba and Bonaire).
                21 Aug 1634  Dutch colony.
         1634 - 1792         Under Dutch West India Company administration.
         1647 - 1664         Part of New Netherland colony (see New York).
                30 Jan 1648  Spain recognizes Dutch possession of Curaçao, Aruba and
                              Bonaire.
  18 Feb 1713 - 27 Feb 1713  French pirate occupation.
  13 Sep 1800 - Jan 1803     British occupation.
  01 Jan 1807 - 04 Mar 1816  British occupation.
                1828         Curaçao, Aruba, Bonaire, Saba, Sint Eustatius, Sint Maarten
                              and Dutch Guiana (Suriname) united as the Dutch West Indies
                              with the governor of Dutch Guiana as the governor-general.
                27 Jan 1848  Islands united under the name of Curaçao and Dependencies
                              from 20 Sep 1948, renamed Netherlands Antilles).
                29 Dec 1954  Netherlands Antilles an Autonomous part of The Netherlands.
                01 Jan 1986  Aruba a separate dependency.
                19 Nov 1993  In referendum Curaçao votes to remain within the
                              Netherlands Antilles.
                08 Apr 2005  Referendum supports "status aparte" as a separate entity
                              within The Netherlands by 68%.
                02 Nov 2006  Sint Maarten and Curaçao sign agreement with The
                              Netherlands on "status aparte"
                28 Nov 2006  Curaçao island council rejects "status aparte" agreement. 
                09 Jul 2007  Curaçao island council accepts "status aparte" agreement. 
                15 May 2009  Referendum supports "status aparte" as a separate entity
                              within The Netherlands 52%-48%%.
                10 Oct 2010  Curaçao an autonomous country of The Netherlands.
 

Prior to the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles on 10 October 2010, Curaçao was administered as the "Island Territory of Curaçao (Dutch: Eilandgebied Curaçao, Papiamentu: Teritorio Insular di Kòrsou), one of five island territories of the former Netherlands Antilles.
Together with Aruba and Bonaire, Curaçao forms a group referred to as the ABC islands. Collectively, Curaçao and the other Dutch islands in the Caribbean are often called the Netherlands Antilles or the "Dutch Caribbean".

Curaçao is a polyglot society. The official languages are Dutch, Papiamentu, and English. However, Dutch is the sole language for all administration and legal matters. Most of Curaçao's population is able to converse in at least two of the languages of Papiamentu (Portuguese creole), Dutch, English, and Spanish.

Curaçao is now one of the four constituent countries that form the Kingdom of the Netherlands, along with the Netherlands, Aruba and Sint Maarten. The citizens of these countries all share a single nationality. Hato International Airport is located on the island. Its main runway parallels, and is adjacent to, the northern coast. National Anthem: Himno di Kòrsou.
 
 
  • Spain..........................................26 Jul 1499 - 21 Aug 1634
  • Governors
  • Juan Martínez de Ampiés (Ampues)...............17 Nov 1526 - 1533
  • Pedro San Martin.............................................1538
  • Lázaro de Bejarano...........................................1540
  • Alonso Lope de López de Morla.........................16xx - 21 Aug 1634
  • The Netherlands................................21 Aug 1634 - date
  • The British occupied Curacao 1803-1805, 1807-1816, and Bonaire 1807-1814.
  • Directors
  • Johannes van Walbeeck...........................28 Jul 1634 - 1638
  • Jacob Pietersz Tolck...................................1638 - 1641
  • Jan Claesz. van Campen.................................1641 - 1642
  • Heyndrick Gerritszoon (acting).........................1641 - 1642
  • Petrus Stuyvesant......................................1642 - 1664
  • He served in New Netherlands from 1647.
  • Lucas Rodenburg (Rodenburch)...........................1644 - 1655
  • He served as Vice-Director - acting for Stuyvesant to 1647.
  • Matthias Beck..........................................1655 - 1668
  • He served as Vice-Director to 1664.
  • Willem Beck (1st time - acting)........................1668 - 1669
  • Ludovicus Boudewijns van Berlicum.............................1669
  • Willem Beck (2nd time - acting)........................1669 - 1670
  • Dirck Otterinck........................................1670 - 1673
  • Jan Doncker............................................1673 - 1679
  • Nicolaas van Liebergen.................................1679 - 1683
  • Jan van Erpecum........................................1683 - 1685
  • Apero van der Houve (Hoeven) (acting).........................1685
  • Willebord van Engelen (acting).........................1685 - 1686
  • Willem Kerckrinck......................................1686 - 1692
  • Gualterus Schagen (acting).............................1692 - 1693
  • Bastiaan Bernagie (acting to 1694).....................1693 - 1700
  • Coenraed Burgh, Heer van Kortenhoef....................1700 - 1701
  • Nicolaas van Beek (acting to 1701).....................1701 - 1704
  • Jeremias van Collen (1st time - acting).......................1704
  • Gerard Luls (acting)..........................................1704
  • Jacob Beck.............................................1704 - 1709
  • Jeremias van Collen (2nd time - acting).......................1709
  • Abraham Beck...........................................1709 - 1710
  • Jeremias van Collen (3rd time - acting to 1712)........1710 - 1715
  • Jacques Cassard (French Commander)..............18 Feb 1713 - 27 Feb 1713
  • Jonathan van Beuningen.................................1715 - 1720
  • He was known from 1720, Jan van Beuningen, vrijheer van Zuylenburgh, heer Darthuysen. He served as acting Director to 1716.
  • Jan van Beuningen......................................1720 - 18 Sep 1720
  • Cornelis Anderman van der Burgh........................1720 - 1721 with...
  • Juan Pedro van Collen (1st time).......................1720 - 1721 with...
  • Frederick Eck (acting).................................1720 - 1721
  • Jan Noach du Faij (Fay)................................1721 - 1730
  • Juan Pedro van Collen (2nd time).......................1730 - 1738
  • Jan Gales..............................................1738 - 1740
  • Isaäc Faesch.......................................Jul 1740 - 13 Oct 1758
  • Jean Isaïe Claris Rodier de la Bruguière (1st time)....1758 - 1761
  • He served as acting Director.
  • Jacob van Bosveld......................................1761 - 1762
  • Jean Isaïe Claris Rodier de la Bruguière (2nd time)....1762 - 1781
  • He was acting to 1764.
  • Jan Lixraaven (Lieutenant director)....................1781 - 1782
  • Johannes Abrahamszoonde Veer...........................1782 - 1796
  • Jan Jacob Beaujon.............................................1796
  • Johan Rudolf Lauffer...................................1796 - 1803
  • He was acting to 1799 then civil governor from 1800.
  • Governors
  • Hugh Seymour..................................................1800
  • Walter Tremenheere.....................................1800 - 1801
  • William Carlyon Hughes (1st time).............................1801
  • Arthur Whetham.....................................Jun 1801 - 1802
  • William Carlyon Hughes (2nd time)......................1802 - 1803
  • Cornelius Berch (acting)......................................1803
  • C.H. Buschman (acting)........................................1803
  • Abraham de Veer........................................1803 - 1804
  • Pierre Jean Changuion..................................1804 - 1807
  • Sir Charles Brisbane...............................Feb 1807 - 09 Jun 1808
    • acting for Brisbane
    • William Henry Bolton.....................................1807
    • David Baillie............................................1807
    • Micaiah Malbon................................Sep 1807 - 1808
    • Robert Nicholas..........................................1808
  • Sir James Cockburn..............................09 Jun 1808 - 20 May 1809
  • John Thomas Layard..............................20 May 1809 - 18 Jun 1811
  • John Hodgson....................................18 Jun 1811 - 15 Sep 1814
  • John Lecouteur (J.L. Couteur)...................15 Sep 1814 - 04 Mar 1816
  • Governors-general
  • Albert Kikkert..................................04 Mar 1816 - 18 Dec 1819
  • Petrus Bernardus van Starckenborgh (acting)............1819 - 20 Jul 1820
  • Isaäc Johannes Rammelman Elsevier............................1820
  • Governor
  • Paulus Roelof Cantz'laar...............................1820 - 1828
  • Director
  • Isaäc Johannes Rammelman Elsevier......................1828 - 1833
  • Lieutenant governors (gezaghebber)
  • Isaäc Johannes Rammelman Elsevier......................1833 - 1836
  • Reinier Frederik, baron van Raders.....................1836 - 1845
    • acting for baron van Raders
    • Caspar Lodewijk van Uytrecht......................1842 - 1844
  • Rutgers Hermanus Esser.............................Apr 1845 - 27 Jan 1848
  • Governors
  • The governors of the Netherlands Antilles 27 Jan 1848 to 15 Apr 1951.
  • Lieutenant governors (gezaghebber)
  • Michaël P. Gorsira..............................15 Apr 1951 - Mar 1967
  • Willem George Shon Weis de Haseth (acting).........Mar 1967 - 1968
  • Otto R.A. Beaujon..................................Jun 1968 - 22 Apr 1969
  • Elias José Morkos...............................22 Apr 1969 - 01 Aug 1970
  • Anno Elígio Kibbelaar...........................01 Aug 1970 - 1976
  • Ornelio "Kees" Martina.................................1976 - 1982
  • Ronald "Ronny" Anthony Casseres........................1982 - 1988
  • Elmer Raynold Wilsoe...................................1988 - 1994
  • Stanley Mario Betrian...........................01 Oct 1994 - 01 Oct 2000
  • Lizanne Marie Richards-Dindial (female).........01 Oct 2000 - 10 Oct 2010
  • Governors
  • Frits Martinus de los Santos Goedgedrag.........10 Oct 2010 - 24 Nov 2012
    • acting for Goedgedrag
    • Adèle van der Pluijm-Vrede (female)........27 Sep 2012 - 22 Oct 2012
  • Adèle van der Pluijm-Vrede (acting).............24 Nov 2012 - 04 Nov 2013
  • Lucille George-Wout (female)....................04 Nov 2013 - date
 
 
Currency: Netherlands Antillean guilder (ANG) = 100 cents.
The Netherlands Antillean guilder (Dutch: gulden) is currently the currency of Curaçao and Sint Maarten. It was used  until 2010 in the Federation of the Netherlands Antilles along with Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius. It was also used by Aruba till 1985. Netherlands Antillean guilder is subdivided into 100 cents (Dutch plural form: centen). The guilder was replaced by the US dollar on 01 January 2011 on Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius. On Curaçao and Sint Maarten, the Netherlands Antillean guilder is planned to be replaced by the newly created Caribbean guilder. In Papiamentu, the local language of Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao, the guilder is called a "florin".
In the 18th century, the Dutch guilder circulated in the Netherlands Antilles. This was supplemented in 1794 by an issue of coins specific for the Dutch holdings in the West Indies. At this time, the guilder was subdivided into 20 stuiver.
Between 1799 and 1828, the reaal circulated on the islands, with 1 reaal = 6 stuiver or 3 1⁄3 reaal = 1 guilder. In 1794, silver coins were issued for use in the Dutch West Indies in denominations of 2 stuiver, 1⁄4, 1 and 3 guilders. The Dutch guilder was reintroduced in 1828, now subdivided into 100 cents. After the reintroduction of the Dutch guilder in 1828, some 1 guilder coins were cut into quarters and stamped with a "C" in 1838 to produced 1⁄4 guilder coins. When currency began once more to be issued specifically for use in the Netherlands Antilles, it was issued in the name of Curaçao, with the first banknotes and coins, denominated in the Dutch currency, introduced in 1892 and 1900, respectively. In 1900 and 1901, silver 1⁄10 and 1⁄4 guilder coins were introduced which circulated alongside Dutch coins.
In 1940, following the German occupation of the Netherlands, the link to the Dutch currency was broken, with a peg to the U.S. Dollar to 1.88585 Guilders. Following the German occupation of the Netherlands and the separation of the Netherlands Antillean currency from the Dutch, a bronze 1 cent coin was introduced in 1942, followed by a cupro-nickel 5-cent coin in 1943. Bronze 2 1⁄2 cent and silver 1 and 2 1⁄2 guilders were introduced in 1944. The coinage of 1941-44 was minted in the United States and carries "P" or "D" mintmarks, and for most denominations a small palm tree. This money was also intended for use in Suriname.
The name "Netherlands Antilles" (Nederlandse Antillen) was introduced in 1952 on coins. The peg was adjusted to 1.79 Guilders = 1 U.S. Dollar in 1971. In 1970, nickel replaced silver, although the 2 1⁄2 guilder coin was not reintroduced until 1978. Aluminium 1 and 2 1⁄2 cents were introduced in 1979. In 1989, aluminium 1 and 5 cents, nickel-bonded-steel 10 and 25 cents, and aureate-steel 50 cents, 1 and 2 1⁄2 guilders were introduced. Aureate-steel 5 guilder coins followed in 1998.
The alternate Dutch names for coins are: 1 cent coin is known as Sen, 2½ cent as Plaka, 5 cents as Locha (Stuiver), 10 cents as Dubbeltje (Depchi), 25 cents as Kwartje (Dies Plaka), 50 cents as Yotin (Groot Stuiver), 2½ Gulden as Fuerte (Rijksdaalder) and 5 Gulden as Antillean Daalder.
Various privy mint marks at the left top side of the emblem, can be seen on these coins in the following years:
  • 1986-1988: anvil.
  • 1989-1999: bow and arrow.
  • 2000: bow and arrow with star.
  • 2001: wine tendril with grapes.
  • 2002: wine tendril with grapes & star.
  • 2003-date: sails of a clipper.
 
 
Wilhelmina Helena Pauline Maria
[Curaçao coinage: 1901-1948].
 
1943
 

 
 

 

KM#6 2 ½ Florin. Year: 1986. Weight: 10.30g [10.30g]. Metal: Nickel bonded Steel. Edge: Lettered: "GOD * ZIJ * MET * ONS *". Diameter: 30.00 mm. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Utrecht. Obverse: "ARUBA" written at the top between two lines. Emblem in the center right side. Date at the center left side. Value "2 ½ FLORIN" written at the center right side. Horizontal line at the bottom.

Reverse: Queen Beatrix's portrait in the center left adjusted position between two horizontal lines. "Beatrix" written at the center right adjusted side. "KONINGIN DER NEDERLANDEN" written at center bottom right adjusted side. Mintage: 106,200. Minted Years: 1986-2103 (From 1996 onwards only available in sets). Engravers: Evelino Fingal (both sides).

Note: My coin has readable edge when Date side is on the top.

 
1944
 

 

 
 
1947
 

 
   
   
   
 
1948
 

 

 
   
   
 
 
Juliana Louise Emma Marie Wilhelmina
Netherlands Antilles coinage (1952-1980).
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard coinage (1980-2013)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Willem-Alexander Claus George Ferdinand coinage (2014-date)
 
2014
 
   
   
 
 
 
 
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