[Dutch: Curaçao; Papiamentu: Kòrsou] is an island country in the southern
Caribbean Sea, approximately 65 kilometers (40 mi) north of the Venezuelan
coast, that is a constituent country (Dutch: land) of the Kingdom of the
Netherlands. Formally called the Country of Curaçao, it includes the main
island and the uninhabited island of Klein Curaçao (Little Curaçao). It has
an area of 444 km2 (171 sq mi). Capital:
Willemstad (Fort Amsterdam 1634 - c.1674; Santa Ana 1539 - 1634).
26 Jul 1499 Discovered and claimed for Spain by Alonso de Ojeda, named
Isla de los Gigantes (Island of the Giants).
1502 Part of New Andalucia (from 1524, New Granada) as Captaincy
of Curaçao (incl. Aruba and Bonaire).
21 Aug 1634 Dutch colony.
1634 - 1792
Under Dutch West India Company administration.
1647 - 1664
Part of New Netherland colony (see New York).
30 Jan 1648 Spain recognizes Dutch possession of Curaçao, Aruba and
18 Feb 1713 - 27 Feb 1713 French pirate occupation.
13 Sep 1800 - Jan 1803 British occupation.
01 Jan 1807 - 04 Mar 1816 British occupation.
1828 Curaçao, Aruba,
Bonaire, Saba, Sint Eustatius, Sint Maarten
and Dutch Guiana (Suriname) united as the Dutch West Indies
with the governor of Dutch Guiana as the governor-general.
27 Jan 1848 Islands united under the name of Curaçao and Dependencies
from 20 Sep 1948, renamed Netherlands Antilles).
29 Dec 1954 Netherlands Antilles an Autonomous part of The
01 Jan 1986 Aruba a separate dependency.
19 Nov 1993 In referendum Curaçao votes to remain within the
08 Apr 2005 Referendum supports "status aparte" as a separate entity
within The Netherlands by 68%.
02 Nov 2006 Sint Maarten and Curaçao sign agreement with The
Netherlands on "status aparte"
28 Nov 2006 Curaçao island council rejects "status aparte" agreement.
09 Jul 2007 Curaçao island council accepts "status aparte" agreement.
15 May 2009 Referendum supports "status aparte" as a separate entity
within The Netherlands 52%-48%%.
10 Oct 2010 Curaçao an autonomous country of The Netherlands.
Prior to the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles
on 10 October 2010, Curaçao was administered as the "Island Territory of
Curaçao (Dutch: Eilandgebied Curaçao, Papiamentu: Teritorio Insular di
Kòrsou), one of five island territories of the former Netherlands Antilles.
Together with Aruba and Bonaire, Curaçao forms a group referred to as the
ABC islands. Collectively, Curaçao and the other Dutch islands in the
Caribbean are often called the Netherlands Antilles or the "Dutch
Curaçao is a polyglot
society. The official languages are Dutch, Papiamentu, and English. However,
Dutch is the sole language for all administration and legal matters. Most of
Curaçao's population is able to converse in at least two of the languages of
Papiamentu (Portuguese creole), Dutch, English, and Spanish.
Curaçao is now one of the four constituent countries that
form the Kingdom of the Netherlands, along with the Netherlands, Aruba and
Sint Maarten. The citizens of these countries all share a single
nationality. Hato International Airport is located on the island. Its main
runway parallels, and is adjacent to, the northern coast.
National Anthem: Himno di Kòrsou.
Spain..........................................26 Jul 1499 - 21 Aug 1634
Juan Martínez de
Ampiés (Ampues)...............17 Nov 1526 - 1533
Lázaro de Bejarano...........................................1540
Alonso Lope de
López de Morla.........................16xx - 21 Aug 1634
Netherlands................................21 Aug 1634 - date
occupied Curacao 1803-1805, 1807-1816, and Bonaire 1807-1814.
Johannes van Walbeeck...........................28
Jul 1634 - 1638
Jacob Pietersz Tolck...................................1638
Jan Claesz. van Campen.................................1641
Netherlands Antillean guilder (Dutch: gulden) is currently the currency of
Curaçao and Sint Maarten. It was used until 2010 in the Federation of
the Netherlands Antilles along with Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius. It was
also used by Aruba till 1985. Netherlands Antillean guilder is subdivided
into 100 cents (Dutch plural form: centen). The guilder was replaced by the
US dollar on 01 January 2011 on Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius. On Curaçao
and Sint Maarten, the Netherlands Antillean guilder is planned to be
replaced by the newly created Caribbean guilder. In Papiamentu, the local
language of Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao, the guilder is called a "florin".
In the 18th
century, the Dutch guilder circulated in the Netherlands Antilles. This was
supplemented in 1794 by an issue of coins specific for the Dutch holdings in
the West Indies. At this time, the guilder was subdivided into 20 stuiver.
Between 1799 and 1828, the reaal circulated on the islands, with 1 reaal = 6
stuiver or 3 1⁄3 reaal = 1 guilder. In 1794, silver coins were issued for
use in the Dutch West Indies in denominations of 2 stuiver, 1⁄4, 1 and 3
guilders. The Dutch guilder was reintroduced in 1828, now subdivided into
100 cents. After the reintroduction of the Dutch guilder in 1828, some 1
guilder coins were cut into quarters and stamped with a "C" in 1838 to
produced 1⁄4 guilder coins. When currency began once more to be issued
specifically for use in the Netherlands Antilles, it was issued in the name
of Curaçao, with the first banknotes and coins, denominated in the Dutch
currency, introduced in 1892 and 1900, respectively. In 1900 and 1901,
silver 1⁄10 and 1⁄4 guilder coins were introduced which circulated alongside
following the German occupation of the Netherlands, the link to the Dutch
currency was broken, with a peg to the U.S. Dollar to 1.88585 Guilders.
Following the German occupation of the Netherlands and the separation of the
Netherlands Antillean currency from the Dutch, a bronze 1 cent coin was
introduced in 1942, followed by a cupro-nickel 5-cent coin in 1943. Bronze 2
1⁄2 cent and silver 1 and 2 1⁄2 guilders were introduced in 1944. The
coinage of 1941-44 was minted in the United States and carries "P" or "D"
mintmarks, and for most denominations a small palm tree. This money was also
intended for use in Suriname.
The name "Netherlands Antilles" (Nederlandse Antillen) was introduced in
1952 on coins. The peg was adjusted to 1.79 Guilders = 1 U.S. Dollar in
1971. In 1970, nickel replaced silver, although the 2 1⁄2 guilder coin was
not reintroduced until 1978. Aluminium 1 and 2 1⁄2 cents were introduced in
1979. In 1989, aluminium 1 and 5 cents, nickel-bonded-steel 10 and 25 cents,
and aureate-steel 50 cents, 1 and 2 1⁄2 guilders were introduced.
Aureate-steel 5 guilder coins followed in 1998.
Dutch names for coins are: 1 cent coin is known as Sen,
2½ cent as Plaka, 5 cents as Locha (Stuiver), 10 cents as Dubbeltje (Depchi),
25 cents as Kwartje (Dies Plaka), 50 cents as Yotin (Groot Stuiver), 2½
Gulden as Fuerte (Rijksdaalder) and 5 Gulden as Antillean Daalder.
Various privy mint marks at the left
top side of the emblem, can be seen on these coins in the following years:
1989-1999: bow and arrow.
2000: bow and arrow with star.
2001: wine tendril with grapes.
2002: wine tendril with grapes & star.
2003-date: sails of a clipper.
Wilhelmina Helena Pauline Maria
[Curaçao coinage: 1901-1948].
KM#6 2 ½ Florin. Year:
10.30g [10.30g]. Metal:
Nickel bonded Steel. Edge:
Lettered: "GOD * ZIJ * MET * ONS *". Diameter:
"ARUBA" written at the top between two lines. Emblem in the center
right side. Date at the center left side. Value "2 ½ FLORIN" written
at the center right side. Horizontal line at the
Queen Beatrix's portrait in the center left
adjusted position between two horizontal lines. "Beatrix" written at
the center right adjusted side. "KONINGIN DER NEDERLANDEN" written
at center bottom right adjusted side.
Minted Years: 1986-2103
(From 1996 onwards only available in sets). Engravers:
coin has readable edge when Date side is on the top.
Juliana Louise Emma Marie Wilhelmina
Netherlands Antilles coinage (1952-1980).
Wilhelmina Armgard coinage (1980-2013)
Willem-Alexander Claus George Ferdinand coinage (2014-date)