NORFED
The National Organization for the Repeal of the Federal Reserve Act is a non-profit, supporter-based/member-based, educational outfit based in Evansville, Indiana. Their alternative currency (“warehouse receipts”/Certificates) is 100% backed by and redeemable in gold and silver, which is stored by a third party, the Sunshine Minting, Inc. (Coeur d'Alene, Idaho). They also mint NORFED's coinage, and are totally independent and not part of NORFED. The founding of NORFED dates from September 11th 1974, when their Senior Economist, Bernard von NotHaus, wrote To Know Value — An Economic Research Paper and established the Royal Hawaiian Mint. His long-term desire was to issue a legal, value-backed currency for Hawaii, and this was to have been the Hawaiian Sovereign Currency, which was the result of some 23 years of toil and research. When this project was just about ready to be marketed, he had an encouraging chance meeting with one of the Mint's collectors. It was the evening of October 7th 1997, and they were both at the Waikiki Branch Mint. The elderly benefactor became enthusiastic about von NotHaus' ideas, so he urged von NotHaus to seriously consider taking a similar economic model to the mainland. After a brief fact-finding trip, von NotHaus made the decision to retire from the Mint and redesign the Hawaii currency into a national issue. During this 11-month period, he formulated his investigation into another paper, Free Market Currency, which later led him to decide to launch the Free Money Movement as suggested by Nobel Laureate Friedrich August von Hayek, and also to propose the world's first working model for an “Organic Monetary Standard”.
 
 
The idea gained momentum, and adherents, fairly quickly. “Within a year the growing group of concerned Americans had became NORFED. And then at 11:00 PM on September 24, 1998, von NotHaus was on hand to finally take delivery of the first shipment of American Liberty Currency”. On the 25th, this “Monetary Architect” then traveled to Sunshine Minting, and hand-delivered the first sealed/tamperproof cartons of the freshly printed, warehouse receipts to their Chief of Operations/Vice President, who checked them into their vault (known as the Shelter System Warehouse). “And on October 1, 1998, the results of an outstanding group of very dedicated Americans bore fruit when the first American Liberty Currency was distributed on schedule as planned.” Since its introduction, about $5-10 million of NORFED money is in circulation, growing to over 100,000 users nationally. At the center of it all is an expanding network of Liberty Associates (who sign a contract with NORFED and obtain the Liberty Dollars at a discount), Liberty Merchants, and chartered Regional Currency Offices. “Although legal, it is not ‘legal tender,’” yet the currency is supposedly being used in day-to-day transactions across the country, and accepted in trade for goods/services/wages by businesses, banks, churches, and the general public.
It is worth mentioning that von NotHaus considers Ralph Borsodi (Co-founded of International Foundation for Independence) to be one of his mentors, and he unmistakably shares the Doctor's displeasure with the fluctuating fiat money produced by our government.
There have been several batches of Silver Liberty coins, including issues from 1999, 2000, and 2003 which can be viewed at and purchased directly from http://www.norfed.org. Only a few thousand of these were minted in a span of about 3 months, and it is considerably different than all the Silver Liberty Dollars which followed (for one, the reverse contains a heraldic design of ancient symbols with the legend, THE SHELTER SYSTEM). Type 1-B, with a different reed-count, was minted by Bernard at the Royal Hawaiian Mint.
 
The Liberty Dollar is a privately issued currency that was made to be an "inflation proof" alternative to the United States dollar. It is based on an ounce of silver, with one ounce of silver being currently equivalent to 20 Liberty Dollars. Though the Liberty Dollar has been around since 1998, it languished in obscurity with only a very limited following until 2006 when the U.S. Mint issued a warning [Liberty Dollars Not Legal Tender, United States Mint Warns Consumers "Justice Determines Use of Liberty Dollar Medallions as Money is a Crime", published on September 14, 2006] about using the Liberty Dollar as currency, and threatened individuals with prosecution for trying to spend Liberty Dollars. It is unclear if the government is really concerned that the Liberty Dollar would pose a threat to the United States dollar, or if there were just some government bureaucrats that had too much time on there hands. The publicity created by the Mint's warning has caused a vast increase in demand for Liberty Dollars and many more merchants began accepting Liberty Dollars in trade. It is clear that the minting or possession of Liberty Dollars is not a crime. It is unclear how it is a crime to accept them in trade as the Mint claims. The United States Mint has a Consumer Alert with photos of Liberty Dollars at http://www.usmint.gov/consumer/index.cfm?action=HotItems.
 
I have also seen 1 Dollar in copper dated 2007. Liberty 20 Silver Dollars produced on Marco Island (tiny Island in Florida) in 2006 and a different design of Libertad 20 Silver Dollars in 2007 for Puerto Rica..
 

 
Micro-Nations
 
Chiefa Coins