Poarch Creek Indians
American Indian people originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Muscogee (or Muskogee), the name they use to identify themselves today. Mvskoke is their name in traditional spelling. Modern Muscogees live primarily in Oklahoma, Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. Their language, Mvskoke, is a member of the Creek branch of the Muskogean language family. The Seminole are close kin to the Muscogee and speak a Creek language as well. The Creeks are one of the Five Civilized Tribes. Cusseta (Kasihta) and Coweta are the two principal towns of the Creek Nation to this day. Traditionally the Cusseta and Coweta bands are considered the earliest members of the Creek Nation.
Most of the work of art inspired on the designs for Poarch Creek Nation of Indians coins are sculpted by Alex Shagin.
The second silver dollar issued by the Creek Indians features Chief Menawa, as originally painted by Charles Bird King when Menawa visited Washington, D.C. in 1826 to protest the Treaty of Indian Springs. King was employed by the U.S. War Department to paint the Indian delegates visiting Washington, D.C. Sadly this, along with most of Byrdís original oil paintings, were lost in a fire at the Smithsonian Institution. But fortunately, a copper plate was engraved based on the original painting for McKenney & Hallís Indian Tribes of North America, Rice & Hart, Philadelphia, published in 1858.
Menawa, also known as Great Warrior, was a military leader of the people. Like many of the Creek leaders of his era, he was of mixed Scottish and American Indian ancestry. He was born about 1765 at the village of Oakfuskee located on or near the Tallapoosa River. During the Creek War he was one of the principle leaders of the "Red Sticks" or Upper Creeks, who went to war against the United States during the War of 1812. Menewa was second in command at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend at the end of the Creek War. He was wounded seven time during the battle, but he escaped and survived his wounds.
Menawa was a member of the Creek National Council that went to Washington in 1826 to oppose this treaty. The Creek leaders signed the Treaty of Washington (1826), which nullified the Treaty of Indian Springs. In this new treaty, the Creek ceded land to Georgia - in compensation they received an immediate payment of $217,660 and a perpetual annuity of $20,000. Menewa died during the general removal of the Creek. His burial place is unknown.
On August 30, 1813, Red Sticks led by Red Eagle attacked the American outpost of Fort Mims near Mobile, Alabama, where white Americans and their Indian allies had gathered. The Red Sticks took the fort, and a bloody clash ensued, as prisoners including women and children were killed. Nearly 250 people were killed, spreading panic throughout the American southwestern frontier.
In response to the massacre at Fort Mims, Tennessee, Georgia, and the Mississippi Territory sent armies deep into Creek country. Outnumbered and poorly armed, the Red Sticks put up a desperate fight from their wilderness strongholds. On March 27, 1814, General Andrew Jackson's Tennessee militia, aided by the 39th U. S. Infantry Regiment and Cherokee and Creek allies, finally crushed Red Stick resistance at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend on the Tallapoosa River.
Though the Red Sticks had been crushed - altogether, about 3,000 Upper Creeks died in the war the remnants of the Upper Creek resistance held out for several months. In August 1814, exhausted and starving, they surrendered to Jackson at Wetumpka (near the present city of Montgomery, Alabama). On August 9, 1814, the Creeks were forced to sign the Treaty of Fort Jackson, which ended the conflict and required them to cede some 20 million acres (81,000 km≤) of land - more than half of their ancestral territorial holdings to the United States. Even those Creek who had fought alongside Jackson were compelled to cede territory, because Jackson held them responsible for allowing the Red Sticks to rise up. The state of Alabama was carved out of this domain and was admitted to the United States in 1819.
Some of the Creeks migrated to Florida in the aftermath of the war, where some of them allied with the Seminoles and British against the Americans. They were involved in both sides of the Seminole War in Florida.
Additional coins with various design featuring Creek Indians chiefs are also available and produced by PandaAmerica [3460 Torrance Blvd., Suite 100, Torrance, CA 90503]: http://www.pandaamerica.com/coins.asp
Chiefa Coins