|The Maratha Empire or the
Maratha Confederacy was an Indian power that dominated much of the Indian
subcontinent in the 18th century. The empire formally existed from 1674 with
the coronation of Chhatrapati Shivaji and ended in 1818 with the defeat of
Peshwa Bajirao II. The Marathas were a Hindu warrior group from the western
Deccan Plateau (present day Maharashtra) that rose to prominence by
establishing a Hindavi Swarajya. The Marathas became prominent in the
seventeenth century under the leadership of Shivaji who revolted against the
Adil Shahi dynasty and the Mughal Empire and carved out a kingdom with
Raigad as his capital. Known for their mobility, the Marathas were able to
consolidate their territory during the Mughal–Maratha Wars and later
controlled a large part of the Indian subcontinent.
|The origins of the
Marathas are lost in the early history of the remote hill country of the
Western Ghats in present-day Maharashtra. By the 15th century they had come
into occasional prominence for their resistance to Muslim incursions into
their homelands. They were a rugged wiry people who, by the 17th century,
had accommodated themselves to the political realities of their times by
becoming feudatories, or mercenaries, to the sultans of Bijapur. It is not
clear exactly what happened to suddenly thrust the Marathas into the
limelight of Indian history in the 17th century.
The most likely explanation seems to be that the broad sweep of Aurangzeb's
campaigns across the Deccan, his insensitivity towards Hindu sentiment, and
the pre-eminence he gave to Islam, all served to politicize a hitherto
politically quiescent people. And just as Aurangzeb supplied the occasion,
the Marathas found in Sivaji the man. In the 17th century Shahji, the father
of Sivaji, was holder of a small fiefdom under the Bijapur sultans. His son,
taking advantage of the declining authority of his overlords, seized some of
the surrounding territory. Bijapur proved incapable of quelling his
insurrection. Drawing encouragement from this experience, Sivaji's forces
sacked and plundered the Mughal port of Surat in1664. From this point until
his death in 1680 Sivaji maintained a sort of running guerilla war with
Aurangzeb. There were no decisive victories for either side but Sivaji left
behind him a cohesive and well organized regional alliance in the Western
Deccan, a small isolated kingdom in Tanjore and a few pockets of territory
on the west coast. After Sivaji's death the struggle was renewed as
Aurangzeb advanced into the Deccan. It was the years after Aurangzeb's death
in 1707, which really saw revival as the Maratha confederacy gained a new
cohesiveness and its military successes
began to make it look as if the Marathas might even become the new masters
of India. The revenues of much of the Deccan now flowed into (finished up
in) Maratha pockets. Baji Rao I, the Peshwa, pressed as far north as the
gates of Delhi and in 1738 he gained control of Malwa. Parts of Gujarat also
were in confederacy hands. Bengal was invaded, Orissa annexed (1751), and
the territories of the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Carnatic appeared at risk.
It was during this period that some of the great Maratha families gained
prominence - the Holkars, the Sindhias, the Gaekwars and the Bhonslas -
families who later, as the confederacy began to disintegrate and give way to
rivalry, would assert their own regional interests at the expense of the
The turning point for Maratha fortunes was the battle of Panipat on 04
January 1761. Intending to stop the Afghan, Ahmad Shah Abdali (Durrani), in
his tracks, the Marathas assembled the greatest army in their history and
placed it under the unified command of the Peshwa of Poona. By nightfall the
Peshwa's son and heir, Bhao Sahib, and all the leading chiefs, were dead.
Maratha losses were said to have been in excess of a hundred thousand men.
The Marathas would still remain a force to be reckoned with, they would
again cross the Chambel (1767), and they would still give the Nizam's forces
a thrashing (1795), but from 1761 onwards internal dissension grew rife and
the Maratha Confederacy would never again exhibit sufficient cohesion to be
considered a serious contender for the crown of India.
This powerful alliance of Marathi warriors owed nominal allegiance to the
Rajas of Satara (descendents of Shivaji) and drew their unity from the
leadership of the Peshwa, the hereditary prime minister of the
confederation. In the mid-18th century the Marathas were at the apogee of
their influence, having hastened the end of effective Mughal power in the
Deccan and western India. They successfully checked the intrusions of the
Durranis into north India, although the experience left them so militarily
exhausted that the dominance in Hindustan passed to other hands.
The great families of the lieutenants of the Peshwa gradually carved out
regional power bases and became progressively less responsive to the
authority of their formal superiors. The Maratha power, as such, was broken
in a series of wars with the East India Company, bitterly fought and very
close contests which settled the fate of large sections of India. Broadly
speaking, the Marathas may for convenience sake be listed in two categories,
the lines which became extinct through British action and those which
accommodated the English after defeat and survived to become Princely
States. The latter will be found elsewhere in the catalogue; the
non-surviving political units are catalogued below. Sivaji's grandson Shahu
I granted considerable authority to the Bhat family as hereditary Prime
Ministers (Peshwas) and proceeded with Peshwa control of Marathan armies to
expand his power base and that of other maratha associate states. After
Shahus death in 1749, the Peshwas were the effective rulers of the
Capital: Prune [Poona] (Satara
1698-1750; Raigarh 1674-1698).
Holkars of Indore.
Shindes of Gwalior.
Gaikwads of Baroda.
Bhonsales of Nagpur (see below).
Puarss of Dewas and Dhar.
16 Jun 1674 Shivaji Bhonsle secedes from Mughal Empire and creates
a Mahratta (Maharashtra) empire; a branch of the Bhonsle
family displaces an earlier lineage in Tanjur (Tanjore).
14 Apr 1680 Shivaji dies, and his lineage maintains an increasingly
tenuous paramountcy over the Mahratta chiefs, ruling
directly over a district centred at Satara; the "chief
minister," styled peshwa, soon governs a quasi-independent
polity - from 1713 the peshwa is chosen from the ruling
1731 The Mahratta states of Baroda, Gwalior, and Indaur (Indore)
become de facto independent.
1743 The Mahratta state of Nagpur becomes de facto independent.
11 Jun 1793 Tanjur a British protectorate.
20 Oct 1799 Tanjur (Tanjore), with the exception of the capital
fortress, is annexed to British India.
03 Jun 1818 The "Peshwa's Dominions" are annexed to British India.
01 May 1849 Satara, the site of the Mahratta paramount ruler, is
annexed to British India.
11 Dec 1853 Nagpur is annexed to British India.
30 Oct 1855 Tanjur (Tanjore) fortress is annexed to British India.
Jul 1857 Rebellion by son of the last Peshwa.
- leaders of the
Maratha Confederation, located at Poona.
- Balaji Vishwanath
Bhat S/o Vishwanathpant (Visaji).16 Nov 1713 - 02 Apr 1719 d. 1719
- He was born in 1662 into a Konkanastha Brahmin
(aka Chitpavan) family. He gained effective control of the Maratha
Empire during the 18th century. Balaji Vishwanath assisted a young
Maratha Emperor Shahu to consolidate his grip on a kingdom that had been
racked by civil war and persistent attack by the Mughals under Aurangzeb.
He was called "the second founder of the Maratha State." Later,his son
Bajirao became the Peshwa. His second son Chimnaji Appa won the Vasai
fort. The decline of the Mughal Empire following the 27-year Mughal-Maratha
war (1680–1707) led to rapid territorial gains for the Maratha Empire.
- Baji Rao I (Pahila
Bajirao) S/o Balaji Vishwanath.02 Apr 1719 - 25 Apr 1740 d. 1740
- He was born in 1698. He is also known by the
name Bajirao Ballal. Baji Rao is credited with expanding the Maratha
Empire, especially in North India, which contributed to its reaching a
zenith during his son's reign twenty years after his death. In his
military career spanning 20 years, Baji Rao never lost a battle.
According to the British Army officer Bernard Montgomery, Baji Rao was
possibly the finest cavalry general ever produced by India. Under Peshwa
Baji Rao, Gujarat, Malwa and Rajputana came under Maratha control.
Finally, in 1737, Baji Rao defeated the Mughals on the outskirts of
Delhi and brought much of the former Mughal territories south of Delhi
under Maratha control.
- Balaji Baji Rao
Apr 1740 - 23 Jun 1761 d. 1761
- He was born on 08 December 1720. After Baji
Rao died in April 1740, Chhatrapati Shahu appointed 19-year old Balaji
as the Peshwa, despite opposition from other chiefs such as Shahu's own
relative Raghoji I Bhonsle. Balaji Baji Rao was married to Gopikabai.
The couple had three sons. Madhava Rao who succeeded his father Nana
Sahib as Peshwa and Narayan Rao who succeeded Madhava Rao in his late
teens. Nana Saheb had an able brother called Raghunath Rao whose
ambitions to be the Peshwa became disastrous for the Maratha empire.
During Balaji Baji Rao tenure, the Chhatrapati (Maratha king) was
reduced to a mere figurehead. At the same time, the Maratha empire
started transforming into a confederacy, in which individual chiefs —
such as the Holkars, the Scindias and the Bhonsles of Nagpur kingdom —
became more powerful. During Balaji Rao's tenure, the Maratha territory
reached its zenith. A large part of this expansion, however, was led by
the individual chiefs, whose acts of plundering alienated the masses. By
the end of Balaji Rao's tenure, the Peshwa was reduced to more of a
financier than a general. Unlike his father, Balaji Rao was not a great
military leader and failed to gauge the seriousness of Durrani invasions
in northern India. This ultimately resulted in a massive Maratha defeat
by Ahmad Shah Durrani at the Third Battle of Panipat on 14 January 1761.
Marathas suffered heavy losses including Nana Sahib's eldest son and
heir Vishwas Rao and cousin Sadashiv Rao Bhau. Unable to bear the
suffering, he died of depression on 23 June 1761.
- Madhava Rao Ballal
S/o Balaji Baji Rao............23
Jun 1761 - 18 Nov 1772 d. 1772
- He was born on February 14, 1745. In February
1762, Peshwas set out to conquer Karnataka. This was one of the earliest
wars against the Nizam when conflict arose between Madhavrao and his
uncle Raghunathrao. Due to difference of opinion between the two,
Raghunathrao decided to abandon the troop midway and return to Pune,
while Madhavrao continued. Eventually, a treaty was signed with the
Nizam and Madhavrao returned. Both Madhavrao and Raghunathrao had their
preferences even over the Sardars(Generals). Madhavrao usually preferred
the company of Gopalrao Patwardhan, Tryambakrao Mama Pethe, Nana
Fadnavis and Ramshastri Prabhune; while Raghunathrao was dearer to
Sakharambapu, Gulabrao and Gangoba Tatya.
- The discord between Madhavrao and Raghunathrao
was increasing and on August 22, 1762, Raghunathrao fled to Vadgaon
Maval where he started grooming his own army. Raghunathrao's men started
looting the nearby villages for warfare and this act angered Madhavrao.
He decided to wage a war against his uncle Ragunathrao on November 07,
1762. However, Madhavrao didn't wish to battle against his own uncle and
thus, proposed for a treaty. Raghunathrao agreed to sign the treaty with
Madhavrao and asked him to move back to a non-attacking position. Madhavrao did so. However, Raghunathrao deceived Madhavrao. When the
Maratha camp under Madhavrao was relaxed and unsuspecting of a battle,
they were caught unawared as Raghunathrao attacked treacherously. Thus,
Madhavrao was defeated in this war and on November 12, 1762 surrendered
himself to Raghunathrao near Alegaon. After the surrender, Raghunathrao
decided to control all the major decisions under the assistance of
Sakharam Bapu. He also decided to befriend Nizam, but this proved to be
a wrong masterplan as Nizam slowly started infiltrating the zones of
Maratha Empire. As time slipped by, Madhavrao pointed out the gravity of
the situation to his uncle. Eventually on March 7, 1763 the Peshwas,
once again under Madhavrao's leadership, decided to attack Aurangabad to
crush Nizam. After months of chasing, Peshwas faced Nizam's army on
August 10, 1763 in the Battle of Rakshasbhuvan near Aurangabad. Nizam's
army suffered huge losses in this war, but Nizam himself fled away.
- In January 1764, for the second time,
Madhavrao decided to gather up his defences and conquer Hyder Ali. This
time his massive army included efficient generals like Gopalrao
Patwardhan, Murarrao Ghorpade, Vinchurkar and Naro Shankar. Raghunathrao
declined his offer to join him and instead chose to visit Nashik. This
was a particularly long conquest which went for almost a year in and
around the districts of Karnataka. However, Hyder Ali somehow managed to
escape the clutches of the Peshwas. Eventually, Madhavrao decided to
call Raghunathrao for his assistance, but Raghunathrao only signed a
treaty with Hyder Ali, much to Madhavrao’s disappointment. Raghunathrao
intentionally made this move, since he was now fearfully aware of
Madhavrao's burgeoning power. Additionally, his loyal assistant Sakharam
bapu also warned him against the consequences of conquering Hyder Ali.
Peshwa’s failure to impose authority over Hyder Ali triggered a major
setback on Madhavrao’s health. In 1767, Madhavrao I organized a 3rd
expedition against Hyder Ali and inflicted defeats on Hyder Ali in the
battles of Sira and Madgiri and made a surprise discovery of Queen
Virammaji the last ruler of the Keladi Nayaka Kingdom and her son who
were kept in confinement in the fort of Madgiri by Hyder Ali. They were
rescued by Madhavrao I and were sent to Pune for protection. On 18
November 1772 died due to tuberculosis. His wife Ramabai chose to
sacrifice her life (sati) with his body at the time of cremation, even
though Peshwas do not follow that ritual.
- Narayan Rao S/o Balaji Baji Rao...................18
Nov 1772 - 30 Aug 1773 d. 1773
- He was born on 10 August 1755. He was 17 years
old when he became the fifth Peshwa or de facto ruler of the Maratha
Empire from November 1772 until his murder in August 1773 by Raghunath
Rao. He married Gangabai Sathe who later gave birth to Sawai Madhavrao
Peshwa on 18 April 1774. There is a belief in Pune that Narayanrao's
ghost roams the ruins of Shaniwar Wada at every full moon night and one
can hear his voice saying "Kaka Mala Vaachva" (Save Me Uncle) as nobody
came to help him at the night of his death.
- Raghunath Rao.....................................30
Aug 1773 - 1774 d. 1783
- He was born on 18 August 1734. He was also
known as Ragho Ballal or Ragho Bharari. Raghunath Rao became Peshwa but
was soon was deposed by the courtiers and knights of the Empire. They
instead installed Gangabai's new born son, Sawai Madhavrao as the Peshwa
with the courtiers themselves, led by Nana Fadnavis, as the Regents.
Raghunathrao, unwilling to give up his position of power, sought help
from the British at Bombay and signed the Treaty of Surat on 06 March
1775. According to the treaty, Raghunathrao ceded the territories of
Salsette and Bassein to the British, along with part of the revenues
from Surat and Bharuch districts. In return, the British promised to
provide Raghunathrao with 2,500 soldiers. Raghunathrao died on 11
December 1783 of unknown causes.
- Conflicts with Mughal
Empire: Raghunath Rao imprisoned Mughal
Emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur and made Alamgir II as Emperor in his place.
Mughal forces massacred by the Maratha during the Battle of Sikandarabad
in May 1754. This battle resulted in the complete shift of power from
the Mughal Emperor rule to their Ministers. Ahmad Shah Bahadur was
deposed by Vizier Ghazi ud-Din Khan Feroze Jung III in 1754 and later
blinded along with his mother. Alamgir II ruled for five years
(1754-1759) and Shah
Jahan III was placed on the Mughal throne in December 1759 as a result of the intricacies in
Delhi with the help of Imad-ul-Mulk. Shah Jahan III was later deposed by Maratha Sardars
within a year in 1760 and Shah Alam II was made Mughal Emperor
(1760-1788). Muhammad Bidar Bakht, Mughal Emperor ruled for a brief
period in 1788 and was deposed in the same year by the Marathas and
killed in 1790 on the orders of Emperor Shah Alam II, who again became
Mughal Emperor (1788-1806).
- Sawai Madhava Rao
II S/o Narayan Rao..............18 Apr 1774 - 25 Oct 1795 d. 1795
- He was born in 18 April 1774. He was Peshwa of
the Maratha Empire in India, from his infancy. He was known as Sawai
Madhav Rao or Madhav Rao Narayan. He was the posthumous son of
Narayanrao Peshwa. He was made Peshawa when he was barely 40 days. The
Treaty of Salbai was signed on May 17, 1782, by representatives of the
Maratha Empire and the British East India Company after long
negotiations to settle the outcome of the First Anglo-Maratha War
(1775–1782). Maratha won the warrand under its terms, the Company
retained control of Salsette and Broach and acquired guarantees that the
Marathas would defeat Hyder Ali of Mysore and retake territories in the
Carnatic. The Marathas also guaranteed that the French would be
prohibited from establishing settlements on their territories. In
return, the British agreed to pension off their protégé, Raghunath Rao,
and acknowledge Madhavrao II as Peshwa of the Maratha Empire. The
British also recognized the territorial claims of the Mahadji Shinde
west of the Jumna River and all the territories occupied by the British
after the Treaty of Purandar were given back to the Marathas. The Treaty
of Purandhar (01 March 1776) annulled that of Surat, Raghunath Rao was
pensioned and his cause abandoned, but the revenues of Salsette and
Broach districts were retained by the British. The Treaty of Salbai
resulted in a period of relative peace between the Maratha Empire and
the British East India Company until outbreak of the Second
Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805). David Anderson concluded the Treaty of
Salbai on behalf of the East India Company.
- Madhavrao was fond of out-doors and had a
private collection of exotic animals such as lions and Rhinoceros close
to where the later Peshwe park zoo in Pune was situated. He was
particularly fond of his herd of trained dancing deer. Madhavrao
committed suicide at the age of 21 by jumping off from the high walls of
the Shaniwar Wada in Pune. The cause of the suicide probably was that he
could not endure the highhandedness of Nana Fadnavis. Just before his
suicide, it is said that in ordering the execution of the despised
police commissioner, Ghashiram Kotwal, Madhavrao was able to defy the
wishes of Nana for the first time.
- Nana Fadnavis (Administrator/Regent)................1774
- 13 Mar 1800 d. 1800
- Nana Phadnavis (also Fadanvis and
Furnuwees and abbreviated as Phadnis) was probably born on February
12, 1742. He was born as Balaji Janardan Bhanu and was an
influential minister and statesman of the Maratha Empire during the
Peshwa administration in Pune, India. James Grant Duff states that
he was called "the Marattha Machiavelli" by the Europeans. He died
on March 13, 1800.
- Chimaji Appa Rao
S/o Raghunath Rao................25
Oct 1795 - 06 Dec 1796 d. 1830
- He was born in 1783. Raghunathrao had two sons
Baji Rao II and Chimaji Rao II; in addition, he had adopted Amrit Rao.
After his death, his wife Anandi Bai and his three sons were kept in
confinement by the Peshwa's minister Nana Fadnavis. After the death of
Peshwa Madhav Rao II, Nana Fadnavis and the powerful chief Daulat Rao
Scindia installed Chimaji Rao and Baji Rao II as puppet Peshwas in quick
- Baji Rao
II S/o Raghunath Rao.....................06 Dec 1796 - 03 Jun 1818 d.
- He was born in 10 January 1773. He was
installed as a puppet ruler by the Maratha nobles.
- On Sunday, 25 October 1802, on the festival of
Diwali, Yashwantrao Holkar defeated the combined armies of Scindia and
Peshwa at Hadapsar, near Pune (Battle of Poona). The battle took place
at Ghorpadi, Banwadi and Hadapsar. Maharaja Yashwantrao Holkar is said
to have ordered his army not to attack first and wait until 25
cannonballs were fired from other side; when the 25 cannonballs were
fired, Maharaja Yashwantrao Holkar ordered his army to attack. As soon
as he won the war, he ordered his army not to harm the civilians of Pune.
The war was between rival factions of the Maratha Confederacy. The
forces of the Scindia (Shinde) and the Peshwa Bajirao II were attacked
by the Holkars. While the British East India Company was not involved in
the battle, its outcome and aftermath led to the Second Anglo-Maratha
War. Maratha nobles growing power prompted Baji Rao II to flee his
capital Pune and sign the Treaty of Bassein (31 December 1802) with the
British. This resulted in the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-1805), in
which the British emerged victorious and re-installed him as the titular
- British won the Second Anglo-Maratha War
(1803-1805) and three treaty were signed. On December 17, 1803, Raghoji
II Bhonsale of Nagpur signed the Treaty of Deogaon in Odisha with the
British after the Battle of Argaon and gave up the province of Cuttack
(which included Mughalbandi/the coastal part of Odisha, Garjat/the
princely states of Odisha, Balasore Port, parts of Midnapore district of
West Bengal). On 30 December 1803, the Daulat Scindia signed the Treaty
of Surji-Anjangaon with the British after the Battle of Assaye and
Battle of Laswari and ceded to the British Rohtak, Gurgaon, Ganges-Jumna
Doab, the Delhi-Agra region, parts of Bundelkhand, Broach, some
districts of Gujarat and the fort of Ahmmadnagar. The British started
hostilities against Yashwantrao Holkar on 06 April 1804. The Treaty of
Rajghat, signed on 24 December 1805, forced Holkar to give up Tonk,
Rampura, and Bundi.
- In 1817, Baji Rao II joined the Third
Anglo-Maratha War (1817-1818) against the British, after they favoured
the Gaekwad nobles in a revenue-sharing dispute. The Treaty of Poona was
signed on 01 June 1817 between the East India Company and the Peshwa
(ruler) of Bundelkhand, Baji Rao II. The treaty resulted in the British
gaining control of the territory north of the Narmada River and south of
the Tungabhadra River. Baji Rao also had to give up any claim to Gaikwad.
Finally, "he was not to communicate, in any manner, with any other power
in India." On 13 June 1817, the Company forced Baji Rao II to sign an
agreement renouncing claims on Gaekwad's reveues and ceding large swaths
of territory to the British. This treaty of Pune formally ended the
Peshwa's titular overlordship over other Maratha chiefs, thus officially
ending the Maratha confederacy. After suffering several battle defeats,
the Peshwa surrendered to the British, and agreed to retire in return
for an estate at Bithoor and an annual pension.
- Great Britain thereafter...
- Sahib Nana (Dhondu
Pant) [in rebellion].........................Jul 1857 d. 1859
- Nana Sahib (born 19 May 1824 – disappeared
1857), born as Nana Govind Dhondu Pant at Bithoor, was an Indian Maratha
aristocrat and fighter, who led the rebellion in Cawnpore (Kanpur)
during the 1857 uprising. He parents were Narayan Bhatt and Ganga Bai.
As the adopted son of the exiled Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao II, Nana Sahib
believed that he was entitled to a pension from the English East India
Company, but the underlying contractual issues are rather murky. The
Company's refusal to continue the pension after his father's death, as
well as what he perceived as high-handed policies, compelled him to
revolt and seek independence from company rule in India. He forced the
British garrison in Kanpur to surrender, then executed the survivors,
gaining control of Cawnpore for a few days. He later disappeared, after
his forces were defeated by a British force that recaptured Cawnpore. He
was led to the Nepal Hills in 1859, where he is thought to have died.
- British Residents in Poona (Pune)
- Charles Warre
Malet..............................03 Mar 1786 - 21 Feb 1797 d. 1815
- Joshua Uhthoff (acting)..........................21
Feb 1797 - 24 Mar 1798 d. 1818
Palmer...................................24 Mar 1798 - 18 Dec 1801 d.
Close.............................................1801 - 1811 d. 1813
Elphinstone.................................1811 - 1819 d. 1859
|In the latter
17th century, a nationalist revolution erupted out of the Bijapur area,
leading to a revival of Hinduism and native Indian strength in their own
land. The instigator of this movement, Sivaji the Great, established a new
Hindu kingdom within western Maharashtra at Satara, within the old Deccan
successor state of Bijapur. See below the Peshwas at Poona for leaders of
the Maratha Confederation.
- BHONSLE (title Maharaja
- Shivaji I the
Great S/o Shahaji Bhonsle.(1655-) 06 Jun 1674 - 03 Apr 1680 d. 1680
- Shivaji was born in the hill-fort of Shivneri,
near the city of Junnar in Pune district on 06 April 1627 or 19 February
1630. Per legend, his mother named him Shivaji in honour of the goddess
Shivai, to whom she had prayed for a healthy child. Shivaji's father
Shahaji Bhonsle was a Maratha general who served the Deccan Sultanates.
His mother was Jijabai, the daughter of Lakhujirao Jadhav of Sindkhed (Sindkhed
Raja). At the time of Shivaji's birth, the power in Deccan was shared by
three Islamic sultanates: Bijapur, Ahmednagar, and Golconda. Shahaji
often changed his loyalty between the Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar, the
Adilshah of Bijapur and the Mughals, but always kept his jagir (fiefdom)
at Pune and his small army with him.
- In 1659, Adil Shah sent Afzal Khan, an
experienced and veteran general to destroy Shivaji in an effort to put
down what he saw as a regional revolt. The two met in a hut at the
foothills of Pratapgad fort on 10 November 1659. The arrangements had
dictated that each come armed only with a sword, and attended by a
follower. Shivaji, either suspecting Afzal Khan would attack him or
secretly planning to attack, wore armour beneath his clothes, concealed
a bagh nakh (metal "tiger claw") on his left arm, and had a dagger in
his right hand. Accounts vary on whether Shivaji or Afzal Khan struck
the first blow: the Maratha chronicles accuse Afzal Khan of treachery,
while the Persian-language chronicles attribute the treachery to Shivaji.
In the fight, Afzal Khan's dagger was stopped by Shivaji's armour, and
Shivaji's weapons inflicted mortal wounds on the general; Shivaji then
signalled his hidden troops to launch the assault on the Bijapuris. In
the ensuing Battle of Pratapgarh fought on 10 November 1659, Shivaji's
forces decisively defeated the Bijapur Sultanate's forces. This
unexpected and unlikely victory made Shivaji a hero of Maratha folklore
and a legendary figure among his people. To counter the loss, at
Pratapgad and to defeat the newly emerging Maratha power, another army,
this time numbering over 10,000, was sent against Shivaji, commanded by
Bijapur's Abyssinian general Rustam Zaman. With a cavalry force of 5,000
Marathas, Shivaji attacked them near Kolhapur on 28 December 1659. In a
swift movement, Shivaji led a full frontal attack at the centre of the
enemy forces while two other portions of his cavalry attacked the
flanks. This battle lasted for several hours and at the end Bijapuri
forces were soundly defeated and Rustamjaman fled the battlefield. This
victory alarmed Aurangzeb, who now derisively referred to Shivaji as the
"Mountain Rat", and prepared to address this rising Maratha threat.
- Attack on Shahista khan and Surat, enraged the
Mughal emperor, Aurangzeb. In response he sent Mirza Raja Jai Singh I
with an army numbering around 150,000 to defeat Shivaji. Jai Singh's
forces made significant gains and captured many Maratha forts, forcing
Shivaji to come to terms with Aurangzeb rather than lose more forts and
men. In the Treaty of Purandar, signed between Shivaji and Jai Singh on
11 June 1665, Shivaji agreed to give up 23 of his forts and pay
compensation of 400,000 rupees to the Mughals. He also agreed to let his
son Sambhaji become a Mughal sardar, serve the Mughal court of Aurangzeb
and fight alongside the Mughals against Bijapur. One of Shivaji's
commander, Netaji Palkar joined the Mughals, was rewarded very well for
his bravery, converted to Islam, changed his name to Quli Mohammed Khan
in 1666 and was sent to the Afghan frontier to fight the restive tribes.
He returned to Shivaji's service in 1676 after ten years with the
Mughals, and was accepted back as a Hindu on Shivaji's advice.
I S/o Shivaji I.......................05 Apr 1680 - 11 Mar 1689 d. 1689
- Sambhaji (May 14, 1657 – March 11, 1689) was
the second ruler of the Maratha Kingdom. He was the eldest son of
Shivaji I, the founder of Maratha Empire and his first wife Saibai. He
was successor of the realm after his father's death, and ruled it for 9
years. Sambhaji's rule was largely shaped by the ongoing wars between
the Maratha kingdom and Mughal Empire as well as other neighbouring
powers such as the Siddis, Mysore and the Portuguese in Goa. In 1689,
Sambhaji was captured, tortured and executed by the Mughals and
succeeded by his brother Rajaram I.
I S/o Shivaji I.........................11 Mar 1689 - 03 Mar 1700 d.
- Rajaram Raje Bhonsle (24 February 1670 – 03
March 1700 Sinhagad) was the younger son of Maratha ruler Chhatrapati
Shivaji, and half-brother of Sambhaji. He had a very short reign, during
which he was engaged in a struggle with the Mughals. After the death of
Sambhaji, Rajaram was crowned at Raigad on 12 March 1689. As the Mughals
started laying siege to the region around Raigad on 25 March 1689, the
widow of Sambhaji, Maharani Yesubai and her minister Ramchandra Pant
Amatya sent young Rajaram to the stronghold of Pratapgad through Kavlya
ghat. The Maratha army fought with the Mughals and led the new Maratha
king, Rajaram to escape through Kavlya ghat to the fort of Jinji in
present-day state of Tamil Nadu via Pratapgad and Vishalgad forts,
Rajaram reached Keladi in disguise and sought refuge from Keladi
Chennamma - The brave queen fought the Mughals and ensured safe passage
and escape of Rajaram to Jinji, Keladi Chennamma fought the jungle
warfare which frustrated the Mughals and the Mughals proposed peace
accord for the first time with an Indian ruler, Keladi Chennamma ensured
safe travel of Rajaram to jingi by fighting the mughals where he reached
after a month and a half long journey on 1 November 1689. Details of
this escape are known from the incomplete poetical biography of Rajaram,
the Rajaramacharita written by his Rajpurohit, Keshav Pandit, in
- Aurangzeb deputed Ghazi-ud-din Firoze Jung
against the Marathas in the Deccan, and specially sent Zulfiqar Khan
Nusrat Jung to capture the Jingi Fort. He laid siege to it in September,
1690. After three failed attempts, it was finally captured after seven
years on 08 January 1698. Rajaram, however, escaped and fled first to
Vellore and later to Vishalgarh. Rajaram occupied the fort at Jinji from
11 November 1689, but left before it fell in 1698, setting up his court
at fort Satara. During that period when Jinji remained unconquered, "the
intrepid Maratha commanders, Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav,
wrought havoc in the Karnataka and Maharashtra by defeating the Mughal
generals and cutting off their lines of communication." Rajaram died of
lung disease in 1700 at Sinhagad near Pune in Maharashtra leaving behind
widows and infants. Ambikabai, one of his widows, committed Sati upon
Rajaram's death. Another of Rajaram's widows, Tarabai proclaimed her
young son, Shivaji II as the Chhatrapati and ruled as his regent.
However, the release of Shahu, by the successors of Aurangzeb led to an
internecine conflict between Tarabai and Shahu with the latter becoming
the winner and occupant of the throne. Tarabai established a separate
seat at Kolhapur and installed her son as the rival chhtrapati. She was
shortly deposed by Rajasbai, the other surviving widow of Rajaram.
Rajasbai installed the other son of Rajaram called Sambhaji II on the
Kolhapur throne. The Kolhapur line has continued to this day through
natural succession and adoptions per Hindu custom.
II S/o Rajaram
I........................03 Mar 1700 - 12 Oct 1707 d.
- Shivaji II or Shiva Rajaram (June 09, 1696 –
March 04, 1726) was son of Maratha ruler Chhattrapati Rajaram and his
wife Tarabai. Shivaji II served as Raja of Kolhapur from 1710 to 1714.
At that time, he was once again deposed by his step-mother Rajasbai who
installed her own son, Sambhaji II on the Kolhapur throne. Shivaji II
posthumously became father of a son, later called Rajaram II of Satara
who was brought up in obscurity for his own protection. When Shahu,
without a male heir to succeed to his throne, wanted to adopt a son,
Tarabai disclosed this fact to him in late 1740s. Shahu adopted Rajaram
II who succeeded Shahu as the Chhatrapati following Shahu's death.
- Tara Bai (female
Mar 1700 - 12 Oct 1707 d. 1761
- Tarabai Bhosale (b. 1675 - d. 09 December 1761
at Satara) was the regent of the Maratha empire of India from 1700 until
1707. She was the queen of Chhatrapati Rajaram Bhosale, daughter-in-law
of the empire's founder Shivaji and mother of Shivaji II. She is
acclaimed for her role in keeping alive the resistance against Mughal
occupation of Maratha territories after the death of her spouse, and
acted as regent during the minority of her son. The Mughal–Maratha Wars
(September 1681 – May 1707) were fought between the Maratha Empire and
the Mughal Empire from 1680 to 1707. The Deccan Wars started in 1680
with the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb’s invasion of the Maratha enclave in
Bijapur established by Shivaji. The Maratha country was relieved at the
news of the death of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb who died at Khuldabad in
Aurangabad in 1707. Maratha expansion after Aurangzeb's death.
I S/o Shambhuji
I.......................12 Oct 1707 - 15 Dec 1749 d.
- He was born in 1689. Shahu Bhonsle (b. 18 May
1682 – d. 15 December 1749) was the fifth Chhatrapati of the Maratha
Empire created by his grandfather, Shivaji. He was son of Sambhaji I,
Shivaji's eldest son and successor. Shahu, as a child, was taken
prisoner along with his mother in 1689 by Mughal General,Nusrat Jang.
After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, leading Mughal courtiers released
Shahu with a force of fifty men, thinking that a friendly Maratha leader
would be a useful ally. At that time he fought a brief war with his aunt
Tarabai in an internecine conflict to gain the Maratha throne in 1708.
Under Shahu's reign, Maratha power and influence extended to all corners
of the Indian subcontinent. However his reign saw power moving from the
ruler to his ministers (the Peshwas) and the generals who had carved out
their own fiefdoms such as the Shindes, Holkars, Gaekwad and Bhonsle of
II S/o Shivaji II.....................15 Dec 1749 - 11 Dec 1777 d. 1777
- He was born in 1726. Rajaram II Bhonsle, also
known as Ramaraja, was the 6th monarch of Maratha Empire. He was an
adopted son of Chhattrapati Shahu. Tarabai had presented him to Shahu as
her own grandson and used him to grab power after Shahu's death.
However, after being sidelined, Tarabai later signed a peace treaty with
the Peshwa, acknowledging his superiority. On September 14, 1752,
Tarabai and the Peshwa took an oath at Khandoba temple in Jejuri,
promising mutual peace. At this oath ceremony, Tarabai also swore that
Rajaram II was not her grandson, but an imposter from the Gondhali
caste. Nevertheless, the Peshwa retained Rajaram II as the titular
Chhhatrapati and a powerless figurehead.
- Shahuji II "Appa
Sahib" S/o Vithoji Bhonsle.....11 Dec 1777 - 03 May 1808 d. 1808
- He was born in 1763. He was the son Vithoji
Bhonsle and adoptive son of Rajaram II of Satara.
- Pratap Singh "Bowa
Sahib" S/o Shahuji II........03 May 1808 - 05 Sep 1839 d. 1847
- The Peshwa ruled as
Regent ruled during 03 May 1808 - Feb 1818. Pratap Singh Bhosle (18
January 1793 - 14 October 1847) was the eldest son of Shahu II of Satara
and Girjabai Raje Bhosle. He was the nominal emperor of the Maratha
Empire, Satara from 1808 to 1819 and Raja of Satara but the main control
was under the hands of Peshwas until 1839 when he was deposed by the
British. He was dethroned and stripped of his powers and personal
possessions in 1839. He was exiled to Benares and granted an allowance
for his maintenance. Rango Bapuji Gupte a loyal Sardar to him, fight a
lot in legal battles up to London but invain to give justice to his
- Shahuji III Raja "Appa
Sahib" S/o Trimbukji.....05 Sep 1839 - 05 Apr 1848 d. 1848
- He was born in 1802 as Jangli. Shahuji III
ruled the Indian city of Satara and the surrounding Satara district from
1839 until 1848. He was also known as Appa Sahib, and his full titles
were Shreemant Maharaj Shaji Raja Chhatrapati of Satara. His father was
Trimbukji Bhonsle and adoptive father was Pratap Singh. Appa Sahib
succeeded his father under the title Shreemant Maharaj Shajee Raja
Chuttraputtee of Satara. After Pratap Singh death, the British
questioned the irregularity of his adoption, refused to recognize the
succession, and annexed the state of Satara to the Presidency of Bombay
under the doctrine of lapse on 01 May 1849.
- Venkatji "Bowa
Sahib"...........................05 Apr 1848 - 01 May 1849 d. 1864
- He was born in c. 1840.
- To Great Britain thereafter...
- British Residents
- James Cunningham
Grant-Duff.............................1813 - 1823 d. 1858
Briggs.............................................1823 - 1827 d. 1875
Robertson.....................................1827 - 1832 d. 1847
- Peter Lodwick...........................................1832
- 1836 d. 18..
- Charles Ovans...........................................1836
- 1844 d. 1858
- James Outram........................................May
1845 - May 1847 d. 1863
- Henry Bartle Frere......................................1847
- 1849 d. 1884
|Maratha occupied Itawa in AH 1172 (1759) and
countermarked pervious Mughal coins produced here. Maratha
countermark can be seen on left side of this coin on the Obverse
India Mughal KM#377.34 Rupee.
ND - RY4 .
25.50 mm. Edge:
Farrukh-Siyar S/o Azim-ush-Shan (1713-1719).
Itawa was with Maratha AH 1172/RY1 to AH 1175/RY3 (1759-1762);
Rohilla until reconquest by Marathas in AH 1184/RY12 (1771). Ceded
to Awadh AH 1188/RY15 (1774).
ND - RY6 .
22.50 mm. Edge:
Gokak (Gokak in Karnataka state).
Many testing marks and countermarks seen on both sides of this coin.
زد در جہان باطف الہ" (Struck coin in the world by the favour
of God). "بادشاہ زمان محمد شاہ" (Muhammad Shah, Emperor of
the Age) /
Zarb Azamnagar Gokak (6) julus maimanat manus (Struck at
Azamnagar Gokak in the year 6th of the
accession associated with tranquil prosperity).
Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years:
One year type. Ruler:
Mohammed Shah S/o Khujistan Akhtar (1719-1748). This coin
has the early couplet of Muhammad Shah.
Note: Gokak (Kannada Gokak or
Gokaka) is a taluka headquarters in the Belagavi District of
Karnataka state, India. It is located around 70 km from Belagavi at
the confluence of two rivers, the Ghataprabha and the Markandeya.
The common language in use is Kannada. Gokak is surrounded on one
side by a range of hills, and on the other side by a vast plain of
black soil. The river Ghataprabha flows from the north side of the
city and cascades down through a cleft of 167 ft, to form Gokak
Falls before flowing through the town. Since the colonial era, the a
hydroelectric station under the waterfall has been used to power
Gokak Mills, one of the largest manufacturers and exporters of yarn
in India. The river Markandeya, a tributary of the Ghataprabha,
dashes down through 43 ft step wise hill plates to form
ND - RY6 .
23.50 mm. Edge:
Alignment: Slightly rotated.
Sikka Mubarak Badshah Ghazi Alamgir (Auspicious coin of the fighter
of infidels (Ghazi), the emperor Alamgir) / ND.
Ahmadabad (6) julus maimanat manus (Struck at Ahmadabad in the year
6 of the
accession associated with tranquil prosperity). Mint mark: Ankus.
AH1168//1, AH1169//2, AH1169//3, AH1170//3,
AH1170//4, AH1171//4 and AH117x//6 (1754-1759).
Aziz ud-Din Alamgir II S/o Jahandar Shah (1754-1759).
Note: The Marathas took control of
Ahmadabad in the last year of Ahmad Shah Bahadur. The 'Ankus' mint
mark was introduced on the coins of Ahmadabad which continued in the
early years of Alamgir II. In the 3rd and 4th year of Alamgir II's
reign Momin Khan of Khambayat captured Ahmadabad and the 'Ankus'
was replaced by flower. The Marathas wrested control of Ahmadabad in
the 5th year of reign of Alamgir II and the 'Ankus' returned on the
One of Maratha Mints at Ahmadabad from 1757-1800, was leased to
Baroda from 1800-1804, returned during 1804-1806, released to Baroda
in 1806, and ceded to Gaekwar of Baroda in 1817 (AH 1232). In 1818,
it was annexed by the East India Company and finally closed in 1835.
ND - RY 10 .
23.00 mm. Edge:
Sikka Mubarak Badshah Ghazi Shah Alam. [Auspicious
coin of the fighter of infidels (Ghazi), the emperor Shah Alam]
Ahmadabad (10) julus maimanat manus (Struck at Ahmadabad in the year
10 of the
accession associated with tranquil prosperity). Mint mark: Ankus.
AH-//5, AH-//8, AH-//10, AH-//11, AH118x//12,
AH-//13, AH-//14, AH1187//15, AH1188//15, AH1188//16, AH-//17,
AH1192//20, AH119x//21, AH1194//22, AH119x//23, AH1194//24,
AH1195//22, AH1196//24, AH1197//24, AH-//25, AH-//26, AH-//27,
AH-//29, AH1205//3X, AH1207//33, AH1208//34, AH-//35, AH-//36,
AH1209, AH-//37 and AH-//38 (1764-1797). Ruler:
Shah Alam II [Ali
Gauhar] S/o Alamgir II (1760-1788 and 1788-1806).
Note: Somehow Scarce.
Reverse Persian Legend: "سنہ جلوس میمنت مانوس" (in the year of the accession
associated with tranquil prosperity).
Same as above coin but mint name and mint mark 'Ankus' missing.
ND - RY 20 .
Alignment: Rotated (9 o'clock).
ND - RY 24 .
18.50 mm. Edge:
"سکہ زد بر ہفت کشور سایہ فضل الہ" (Struck coin in the seven
climes the shadow of the divine favour).
"حامی دین محمد شاہ عالم
بادشاہ" (The defender of the faith of Prophet Muhammad, the emperor
/ ND. Reverse: Zarb
Balwantnagar (24) julus maimanat manus (Struck at Balwantnagar in
the year 24 of the
accession associated with tranquil prosperity). Mint mark: Ankus.
AH1187//15, AH1187//16, AH1187//17,
AH1187//18, AH1189//16, AH1192//20, AH1192//21, AH1194//22,
AH(119)6//23, AH1197//24, AH1198//25, ND-//27, AH-//28, AH1209//29,
AH-//30 and AH-//31 (1773-1788). Ruler:
Shah Alam II [Ali
Gauhar] S/o Alamgir II (1760-1788 and 1788-1806).
Reverse Persian Legend: "سنہ جلوس میمنت مانوس" (in the year of the accession
associated with tranquil prosperity).
Kolhapur - A proper Marathan state within
1710 Former ruler Shivaji II of Satara founds Kolhapur state.
01 Oct 1812 British protectorate.
- BHONSLE (title: Raja Chhatrapati)
I S/o Shahaji Bhonsle...........................1710 - 02 Aug 1714 d.
- He was born on 06 June 1696 at Jinji,
married 1stly, Rani Shrimant Bhavanibai Raje Saheb, married 2ndly, Rani
Shrimant Parvatibai Raje Saheb (commited sati March 1726). Shivaji I
died of smallpox on 14 March 1726.
- Shambhuji S/o Shivaji
Aug 1714 - 20 Dec 1760 d. 1760
- He was born on 23rd May 1698 at Panhala. He
signed the Treaty of Warna formally separating Satara and Kolhapur in
1731. He had married seven times and died on 20 December 1760.
- Jijibai Sahib
Dec 1760 - 17 Feb 1773 d. 1773
II.......................................22 Sep 1762 - 24 Apr 1813 d.
- He was born on 16 March 1756, adopted by Rani
Shrimant Jijibai on 22 September 1762 and succeeded on 27 September
1762. A commercial Treaty was signed with the British Government on 12
January 1766 and another treaty was signed in November 1792 permitting
the construction of two factories; during his reign. The Raja was
engaged in battles with other Maratha powers and his government was
weakened by internal factions. He signed another treaty on 01 October
1812, by which he was guaranteed against further aggression by all
powers. He married 13 wifes and had 8 children. He died on 24
Feb 1773 - 18 Jul 1779 d. 1779
- She was the sixth wife of Shambhuji. She
was known as Rani Shrimant Durgabai Raje Saheb, from the Mohite
- Shambhuji III "Appa
Sahib" S/o Shivaji II........24 Apr 1813 - 02 Jul 1821 d. 1821
- He was born on 08 March 1801 from Shivaji's
fifth wife, Rani Shrimant Sundrabai Raje Saheb (daughter of Ratnojirao
Khanvilkar). Shambhuji III sided with the British Government in a war
with the Peshwa in 1817, for which he was rewarded with the restoration
of the two districts of Chikori and Manoli. He lost in his war with the
Nipanikar. He married four time and had a son. Shambhuji III was
murdered on 16 July 1821 at Bhawani Mandap Palace.
III S/o Shambhuji III....................02 Jul 1821 - 03 Jan 1822 d.
- He was known as Shrimant Shivaji Rao [Balasaheb]
Bhonsle, born in 1816 and died of smallpox in 1822, before he succeed as
- Shahaji I "Baba
Jul 1821 - 03 Jan 1822 d. 1838
- Shahaji I "Baba
Sahib" (continued)...............03 Jan 1822 - 29 Nov 1838
- He was born on 22 January 1802 and proved to
be a profligate and oppressive ruler. The British Government was forced
to move against him three times between 1822 and 1829. He signed a
Treaty in 1826, agreeing to seek the advice of Government in all matters
dealing with the public peace. Further treaties (1827 and 1829) greatly
reduced his powers. He married eight times and had two sons and two
daughters. He died 29 November 1838.
IV S/o Shahaji I.........................29 Nov 1838 - 03 Aug 1866 d.
- He was born 26 December 1830 as son from
fourth wife of Shahaji I, Rani Shrimant Anandibai Raje Saheb [Tarabai],
daughter of Jyotirao Patankar. During Shivaji IV reign, a rebellion
occurred, necessitating the direct administration by the Government,
which was eventually turned over to the Raja in 1862, who was forced to
sign a treaty, agreeing to guidance by the Government in all important
matters. He married Rani Shrimant Ahilyabai Raje Saheb of Baroda,
adopted his nephew. He died on 03 August 1866.
- His younger brother, Shrimant Shahu [Chimna
Sahib] Bhonsle (by Narmadabai), born 08 January 1831, was accused of
taking part in the 1857 revolt in Kolhapur city. He was exiled to
Karachi and married Shrimant Sakwarbai Raje Saheb. His wife committed
suicide on 02 April 1858 while he died in 1869 on Manora island at
- Rani Saibai II
Nov 1838 - 1845 d. 1861
- She was the third wife of Shambhuji III,
known as Rani Shrimant Saibai Raje Saheb, daughter of Narayanrao
- Rajaram I Nagaji
Rao S/o Ramchandrarao Patankar..04 Aug 1866 - 30 Nov 1870 d. 1870
- He was born on 13 April 1850 as Nagojirao
Patankar. He was the son of Ramchandrarao Patankar and Au Bai Bhonsle
(first child and elder daughter of Shahji I). He married firstly to Rani
Tarabai Sahib (died 1874) and then to Rani Sakwarbai Sahib. He died on
30 November 1870 in Florence, Italy.
- Rani Tarabai
Nov 1870 - 12 Oct 1871 d. 1874
- She was fthe irst wife of Rajaram I Nagaji
- Shivaji V
Chhatrapati Narayana Rao...............12 Oct 1871 - 25 Dec 1883 d. 1883
- He was adopted by Rani Tarabai, born 05 April
1863 as Shrimant Narayanrao Bhonsle, son of Dinkarrao Bhonsle of the
Khanwatkar branch. He was installed on the gadi in October 1871. A
Council of four members were appointed to the administration of the
state in 1882 after the Raja began to show symptoms of mental illness in
1879. He married Rani Shrimant Anandibai Raje Saheb [Tarabai] (she
adopted Yeshwantrao Ghatge of Kagal as successor), daughter of Jyotirao
Patankar. Shivaji V
died on 25 December 1883 at Ahmednagar. He was known from 01 Jan 1877 as Sir Shivaji V
Chhatrapati Narayana Rao. He personal style himself as Maharaja.
Mar 1882 - 25 Dec 1883 d. 1886
- He was the father of Shahaji II.
- Rani Anandbai
Dec 1883 - 17 Mar 1884
- Shahaji II
Chhatrapati Jashwant Rao "Baba Sahib".17 Mar 1884 - 23 May 1900 d. 1922
- He was born on 26 June 1874 as Meherban
Shrimant Yeshwantrao Jaisinhrao Ghatge, son of Meherban Shrimant
Jaisinhrao Narayanrao [Aba Sahib] Ghatge Sarjerao Vajarat-ma-ab, 4th
Chief of Kagal-Senior. He was adopted to Kolhapur and succeeded to the
gadi as a minor on 17 March 1884. He was granted full ruling powers on
02 April 1894. He was granted the title of Maharaja as a Hereditary
distinction on 23 May 1900 . He was made a G.C.S.I. in 1895 and a
G.C.V.O. on 01 January 1902, LL.D. (Hon.) on 10 June 1902, Hon. Member
of the Royal Agricultural Society; granted a personal salute of 21 guns
on 01 January 1909, founded the Shahu Vedic School in 1920, made a
G.C.I.E. on 12 December 1911 at the Delhi Durbar. He married on 01 April
1891 to HH Maharani Lakshmi Bai Saheb (born January 1880), daughter of
Meherban Gunajirao Khanvilkar of Baroda. He was known from 01 Jan 1895 as Sir Shahaji
II Chhatrapati Jashwant Rao. He died on 06 May 1922 at Bombay. Shahaji
II had two sons and two daughters. His first child and daughter, HH
Maharani Radhabai Akka Sahib Maharaj Bhonsle (born 10 March 1894),
married on 21 March 1908 to HH Maharajah Sir Tukoji III Rao Puar, 6th
Maharaja of Dewas Senior Branch.
Mar 1884 - 20 Mar 1885
- Sir Shahaji II
Chhatrapati Jashwant Rao "Baba Sahib"...23 May 1900 - 06 May 1922
- Rajaram II
Chhatrapati S/o Shahaji II............06 May 1922 - 26 Nov 1940 d. 1940
- He was born on 31 July 1897 and G.C.I.E.
[known from 03 Jun 1924 as Sir Rajaram
II Chhatrapati]. He was educated locally and in England under the
guardianship of Rev. Dr. and Mrs. Irwin and at the Ewing Agricultural
College at Allahabad. He took a keen interest in the administration of
the state and during his rule, he introduced many reforms and developed
the commercial and industrial resources of his state. He married firstly
in 1918, HH Maharani Shrimati Indumati Devi Tarabai Sahib, daughter of
Yuvaraj Fatehsinghrao Gaekwad of Baroda and his wife, Yuvarani Padmavati
Bai Saheba. Rajaram II married secondly in 1925 to HH Maharani Shrimati
Vijayamalabai Sahib (died 14 July 1993), daughter of Meherban Shrimant
Atmaramrao Mohite of Tanjore. Rajaram
II died on 26 November 1940. His only child and daughter, Maharajkumari
Padma Raje (born 05 October 1940), married in February 1959 to Sardar
Raghojirao Kadam Bande of Torkhed and had two sons.
(Sardar Harshvardhan Kadam Bande and Sardar Rajvardhan Kadam Bande). She
died on 22 March 1997.
Britain.............................................1940 - 1942
- Tarabai Sahib
Jul 1942 - 18 Nov 1942
- Shivaji VI
Chhatrapati.............................18 Nov 1942 - 28 Sep 1946
- He was born on 22 November 1941 as Pratapsinh,
second son of Shrimant Nana Sahib Shankarrao Bhonsle Charvekar of the
Khanwatkar branch. He died on 28 September 1946.
- Tarabai Sahib
Nov 1942 - 31 Mar 1947
- Sir Shahaji III
Chhatrapati........................31 Mar 1947 - 01 Mar 1949
- He was Maharaja Vikramasimha Rao Puar of
Dewas [Senior Branch] from
1937-1947. He became ceremonial Maharaja of Kolhapur 1947-1983 (adopted to Kolhapur
on 31 March 1947)
as HH Sir Maharajah Shahaji II Chhatrapati. He died on 09 May 1983. His
elder son, HH Maharaja Powar Krishnaji III Rao Puar became the 8th
Maharaja of Dewas Senior Branch.
- Pretenders of Kolhapur
- Sir Shahaji III
Mar 1949 - 09 May 1983
II S/o Rajaramsinhrao........................09 May 1983 - date
- Shahu II (born 07 January 1948) of the Bhonsle
dynasty of the titluar Marathas. He became the ceremonial Maharaja of
Kolhapur in 1983. He is the grandson of Shahaji III. He is the son of
Rajaramsinhrao Laxmanrao Bhonsle of Nagpur and Akhand Soubhagyavati
Shalinirajebai (eldest daughter of Shahaji III). He graduated in arts in
1967 from the Indo-Christian College in Bangalore. He married on 09
March 1970 to HH Maharani Yadnaseni Raje Saheb, daughter of Sardar
Mangulkar of Belgaum. Shahu II had two sons as below:
- Yuvraj Shrimant Sambhaji Raje Chhatrapati Maharaj Sahib
(born 11 February 1971), married to Yuvrani Sanyogeeta Raje Saheb of
Dhamtari, and have only one son: Shrimant Shahajiraje Sambhajiraje
- Maharajkumar Shrimant Malojiraje Bhonsle (born
1974), graduate in Political Science. He married Shrimant Dhawalshri
Raje Saheb, daughter of Dr. Digvijay Khanvilkar, MLA from Kolhapur and
Rajalaxmi Raje Saheb. He has two children: Shrimant Yashasviniraje
Bhonsle (daughter born in 2001) and Shrimant Yashraj Malojiraje Bhonsle
(son born in 2005).
Nagpur - A Marathan state within central
(title: Maharaja Chhatrapati)
I.................................................1734 - 14 Feb 1755 d.
- He was bold and decisive in action, twice his
armies invaded Bengal, and he obtained the cession of Cuttack. In
addition, Chanda, Chhattisgarh and Sambalpur were added to his dominions
between 1745 and 1755. He got married and had four sons. He died on 14th
February 1755 at Nagpur.
Janoji S/o Raghuji I...............................14 Feb 1755 - 21 May
1773 d. 1773
- He took part in the wars between the Peshwa
and the Nizam of Hyderabad. After he had in turn betrayed both of them,
they united against him and sacked and burnt Nagpur in 1765. He married
Maharani Darya Bai, and had adoptive son. He died on 21 May 1773.
- Mudhoji I
Raghunath Rao S/o Raghuji I (Regent).....21
May 1773 - 19 May 1788 d. 1788
- He was also known as Senadhurandhar and fought
for the succession with his brother: Sabhaji. Sabhaji died in the
battlefield of Panchgaon on 26 January 1775. He succeeded to the regency
on behalf of his infant son Raghuji II who was Janoji's adopted heir. In
1785 Mandla and the upper Narmada valley were added to the Nagpur
dominions by treaty with the Peshwa. He married and had four sons. He
died on 19 May 1788 at Nagpur.
(title: Maharaja Sena Sahib Subah)
II S/o Mudhoji I...........................19 May 1775 - 22 Mar 1816 d.
- He was born in 1760. Became known as Sena
Sahib Subha around 1775. His predecessor had courted the favor of the
British East India Company, and this policy was continued for some time
by Raghuji II, who acquired Hoshangabad and the lower Narmada valley
between 1796 and 1798. In 1803 he united with Daulatrao Scindia of
Gwalior against the British, but the two leaders were decisively
defeated at the battles of Assaye and Argaon. By the Treaty of Deogaon
of that year, Raghuji ceded Cuttack, southern Berar, and Sambalpur to
the British, although Sambalpur was not relinquished until 1806. He
married (amongst others), Maharani Baka Bai (died 07 September 1858 at
Nagpur at the age of 77 and received a pension of 120,000 Rupees). He
had two sons and one daughter. He died on 22 March 1816.
- Parsoji "Bala
Sahib Parsharam" S/o Raghuji
II......22 Mar 1816 - 02 Feb 1817 d. 1817
- He was born in 1778. He was deposed and
murdered by Mudhoji II on 02 February 1817. Parsoji's younger brother
Maharajkumar Dharmaji Bhonsle was murdered earlier on 05 May 1816.
- Mudhoji II "Appa
Sahib" S/o Vyankoji...............02 Feb 1817 - 15 Mar 1818 d. 1840
- He was born in 1796. and son of Vyankoji
Bhonsle [Manya Bapu] who died in 1811 at Kasi. Vyankoji was the second
son of Mudhoji I. In 1817, on the outbreak of war between the British
and the Peshwa, Appa Sahib threw off his cloak of friendship, and
accepted an embassy and title from the Peshwa. His troops attacked the
British and were defeated in the action at Sitabaldi and second time
near Nagpur city. As a result of these battles, the remaining portion of
Berar and the territories in the Narmada valley were ceded to the
British. Appa Sahib was reinstated to the throne, but shortly afterwards
was discovered to be again conspiring and was deposed and moved to
Allahabad in custody. On the way, however, he bribed his guards and
escaped, first to the Mahadeo Hills and subsequently to the Punjab. He
married firstly to Maharani Savitri Bai (received a pension of 10,000
Rupees) and secondly to Maharani Uma Bai. He died in 1840 in Jodhpur.
- Raghuji III "Bapu
Sahib"...........................26 Jun 1818 - 11 Dec 1853 d. 1853
- He was born in 1806 (or 1808) to Maharajkumari
Banu Bai, daughter of Raghuji II. He succeeded to the throne on 26 June
1818 and was entrusted with the administration of the state in 1826 upon
attaining his majority. Due to his young age, the territories were
administered by the resident from 1818 to 1830. He was allowed to assume
ruling powers in 1830. He married firstly to Maharani Annapurna Bai
(received a pension of 50,000Rs) and married secondly to Maharani Dariya
Bai (sister of Daji Sahib Sirke, died 1907, received a pension of
25,000Rs). He died on 11 December 1853. The state lapsed with his death
(annexed by the British under the Doctrine of Lapse due to failure of
- To Great Britain thereafter...
- Pretenders of Nagpur (title: Raja
Bahadur of Devur or Deor)
- The former kingdom was administered as Nagpur
Province, under a commissioner appointed by the Governor-General of
India, until the formation of the Central Provinces in 1861. During the
Revolt of 1857 a scheme for an uprising was formed by a regiment of
irregular cavalry in conjunction with the disaffected Muslims of the
city, but was frustrated by the prompt action of the civil authorities,
supported by Madras troops from Kamptee. Some of the native officers and
two of the leading Muslims of the city were hanged from the ramparts of
the fort, and the disturbances ended. The aged princess Baka Bai (died
07 September 1858), widow of Raghuji II (ruled 1775-1816), used all her
influence in support of the British, and by her example kept the Maratha
- Janoji II
Yashwantrao S/o Nana Ahirarao............11 Dec 1853 - 05 Dec 1881
- He was the son of Nana Ahirarao (a nephew of
Raghuji III). He was adopted by Maharani Dariya Bai (second wife of
Raghuji III) in 1855. He became known as Raja Bahadur of Devur or Deor
in 1861. He was granted a pension of 120,000 Rupees (subject to revision
after his death). His villages were taken under management in 1873 until
a debt of five and a half lakhs was repaid. He married and had two sons
and three daughters. He died on 05 December 1881.
- Raghuji Deo S/o
Janoji II...........................05 Dec 1881 - ?
- He was born on 07 November 1872. The family
properties were divided between the two brothers in 1900. He got married
and had two sons. He second son's name was Shrimant Kumar Jaisingh Raje
- unknown rulers.
- British Residents in Nagpur
- Henry Thomas
Colebrooke............................18 Mar 1799 - 19 May 1801 d. 1837
- Vacant: 19 May 1801 - 21 Dec 1803.
Elphinstone.............................21 Dec 1803 - 1808 d. 1859
Jenkins...........................................1808 - 29 Dec 1826 d.
- Hamilton (acting)..................................29
Dec 1826 - 12 Apr 1827
- Francis Boyle
Shannon Wilder.......................12 Apr 1827 - 19 Feb 1830 d. 1849
- Henry Sullivan
Graeme.....................................1830 - 1833 d. 1850
- Gordon (acting)...........................................1833
Briggs........................................31 May 1834 - 1835 d. 1875
Cavendish.........................................1835 - 13 Nov 1839 d.
Wilkinson...................................13 Nov 1839 - 12 Sep 1844
- Alexander Spiers...................................01
Dec 1844 - 1847
Ramsay................................................Jan 1847 - 12 Mar
Davidson...........................................12 Mar 1849 - Aug
- Charles Grenville
Mansel..............................Nov 1850 - 13 Mar 1854 d. 1886
Bhonsle of Nagpur coinage:
ND - 5x [ca. 1825-1853].
20.00 mm. Edge:
Sikka Mubarak Badshah Ghazi Ahmed Shah Bahadur. [Auspicious
coin of Emperor Ahmed Shah the strong, fighter of infidels (Ghazi)]
Zarb Katak (5x) julus maimanat manus (Struck at
the year 5x of the
accession associated with tranquil prosperity). Without mint marks.
My coin is double struck on reverse side.
Pseudo Regnal years:
AH-//52, AH-//57 and AH-//512. Ruler:
Anonymous Ruler (Perhaps: Raghoji III)
Emperor Ahmad Shah
Bahadur S/o Mohammed Shah (1748-1754). Note: Common.
Note: Cuttack is the former capital and
the second largest city in the eastern Indian state of Odisha. It is
also the headquarters of the Cuttack district. The name of the city
is an anglicised form of Katak which literally means The Fort, a
reference to the ancient Barabati Fort around which the city
initially developed. Cuttack is also known as the Millennium City as
well as the Silver City due to its history of 1000 years and famous
silver filigree works.
|A city and
district in far southern India, about 50 miles (80 km.) west of the French
enclave and port of Karaikal. A Maratha state in the 17th and 18th
- Chola Empire (A
Chola capital 9th - 11th century).......c. 846 - 1279
Empire.............................................1279 - 1334
- Vijaya Raghava..............................................
? - 1673
- BHONSLE (Maratha rulers in Tamil
- title: Rajas
- Within French sphere of influence c. 1680 -
- Venkaji S/o
- He was born in 1630, son of Raja Saheb Shahaji
Bhonsle of Pune. He married two wives and had nine concubines, He had
three sons and died in 1684.
- Shahji S/o Venkaji....................................Jan
1685 - 1712 d. 1712
- He died in 1712 at the aged of 40 years. Raja
Shahuji Rao Bhonsle is known to be his putative son.
- Sarabhoji I (Sarfoji
I) S/o Venkaji.......................1712 - 1729 d. 1729
- He married three wives. He died in 1728 at
aged of 53 years.
- Tukoji (Thulaja
I) S/o Venkaji............................1729 - 1736 d. 1736
- He married five wives and had six concubines.
He died in 1736 aged 59 years. He had three sons: Raja Venkoji II Baba
Saheb Bhonsle [aka Ekoji], Raja Pratap Rao Bhonsle (by Rani Annapurnabai)
and Shrimant Sayaji Bhonsle.
- Venkoji II (Baba
Sahib) S/o Tukoji........................1736 - 1737 d. 1737
- He was born in 1696. Got married including
Rani Sujana Bai and had two sons: Raja Shahuji Rao Bhonsle and Raja
Pratap Rao Bhonsle. He died in 1737.
- Pratap S/o Venkoji
- 1740 d. 1763
- Rani Sujana Bai (female
- Shahuji [Kattu
Raje] S/o Venkoji II (pretender)...........1740
- 1741 d. 1741
- Pratap S/o Venkoji
- 16 Dec 1763
- He got married to five wives (3rd and 5th
wives committed sati) and had seven concubines. He had two sons: Raja
Tuljaji Rao Bhonsle while Raja Amir Rao Bhonsle was from a concubine.
- Within British sphere of influence 1763 -
- Tuljaji S/o Pratap.................................16 Dec 1763 - 1787 d.
- He was British
prisoner: 16 Sep 1773 - 11 Apr 1776. He got married five wives (two
committed sati), and had adoptive son: HH Raja Sarfoji Rao Bhonsle II.
He died in 1787 aged 49 years.
- Sarabhoji II [Sarfoji
II] (1st time)...............23
Jan 1787 - 1793 d. 1832
- He was born 1773 and was adopted son of Raja
Tuljaji Rao Bhonsle. He was allowed to assume the title of Highness in
1811 by the Board of Commissioners for the Affairs of India. He got
married to three wives and had 24 concubines, including Rani Avu Bai
Saheba (died 21st June 1864). He had a son: HH Raja Shivaji Rao Bhonsle
(by Rani Avu Bai) and a daughter. He died on 08 March 1832.
- Amir [Amar Singh]
S/o Pratap (Regent).........23
Jan 1787 - 1793 d. 1802
- Amir [Amar Singh]
S/o Pratap (took
control)...............1793 - 29 Jun
- He got married and had a son Shrimant
Prataprao Amirrao Bhonsle (got married in 1812).
- Sarabhoji II [Sarfoji
II] (2nd time)...............29
Jun 1798 - 08 Mar 1832
- Shivaji S/o Sarabhoji
II...........................08 Mar 1832 - 30 Oct
1855 d. 1855
- He married twenty wives, including (a), HH
Rani Anasamba Bai Sahiba (died after 1892), married (b), HH Rani
Chimamba Bai Sahiba (died after 1892), married (c), HH Rani Gauramba Bai
Sahiba (died after 1892), married (d), HH Rani Jaiani Bai Sahiba (died
after 1892), married (e), HH Rani Kamakshi Bai Sahiba (died after 1892),
married (f), HH Rani Rama Kumaramba Bai Sahiba (died after February
1909), married (g), HH Rani Thipamba Bai Sahiba (died after 1892),
married (h), HH Rani Umamba Bai Sahiba (died after 1892), married (i),
HH Rani Kamatchi Ammah (his niece, daughter's daughter of Sarabhoji II,
she died after 1892), married (j), HH Rani Jeejamba Bai (died after
February 1909). He only fathered two daughters, as well as six natural
sons. He was followed as Raja of Tanjore by an adopted son, who is
ancestor of the later Raja's of Tanjore, though the state lapsed to the
East India Company, however his private property was dispersed to the
rightful heirs. He died on 30 October 1855. His daughter were:
- Rajkumari Rajesa Bai (by Rani Sydamba Bai and
married Sakharam Rao Saheb Mohite. She died on 26 December 1856).
- Rajkumari Mohana Mukta Bai Amani Raje Sahiba
[by Rani Sydamba Bai, born about 1845, she received a pension of Rs3,000
p.m., a personal salute of 13 guns and in 1878, she was appointed a
member of the Imperial Order of the Crown of India; married February
1860, Raja Sakharam Rao Saheb Mohite, and had issue, three children, as
well as an adoptive son (Shambhu Singh, died in 1891). She died 31st
Britain directly.............................30 Oct 1855 - 15 Aug 1947
Aug 1947 - date
- HH Raja Sarfoji
- HH Shrimant Raja
Sri Pratap Sinha Raje S/o Sarfoji III.......? - 1969
- He was born in 1889. He was educated in
English and Tamil by private tutors, as well as horse riding and
gymnastics. He became proficient in Veena and Carnatic music and became
a great patron of music performances in his Sadar Mahal Palace. He was
also a philanthropist, donating much of his private properties to just
causes; he also served as the main donor and a life member of the
Saraswathi Mahal library, donating old books and modi records to the
library. He got married to HH Rani Saheb Sulochana Raje Bhonsle,
daughter of Poona Anand Raje Mahadik of Tarla, and had two sons and two
daughters. He died 1969. His two sons were:
- Yuvaraj Shrimant Tulajendra Raje Bhonsle
- Rajkumar Maloji Raje Bhonsle
- Raja Babaji Rao
- He was born in 1969. He has a degree in
Engineering, underwent training in preservation methods at the Madras
Museum, hereditary trustee of 88 temples and attended the World Marathi
Conference. He got married in 1997 to Rani Shrimant Gayatri Raje
Ghorpade, daughter of Raja Shrimant Murarirao Yeshwantrao Ghorpade of
Sandur, and his wife, Rani Vasundhara Raje Gaekwad. He has two
- British Residents in Tanjore
Sullivan.............................................1781 - 1785 d. 1839
- John Hudleston............................................1785
- Alexander Macleod
- Oct 1789
- George Andrew
Ram.........................................1789 - 1792
- Alexander Macleod
Grant...........................................1797 - 1798
- Benjamin Torin............................................1798
- William Blackburne........................................1803
- 03 Mar 1823 d. 1839
Hardy......................................04 Mar 1823 - 21 Aug 1824
Fyfe..........................................22 Aug 1824 - 09 Nov 1830
- W. Tweedie (acting)................................10
Nov 1830 - 31 Dec 1830
- W. Hudlestone......................................01
Jan 1831 - 31 Mar 1831
- J. Blackurne.......................................01
Apr 1831 - 16 Aug 1832
- Archibald Douglas
Aug 1832 - 18 Oct 1834
- T. Macleane (1st
Oct 1834 - 20 Jul 1837
- C.M. Macleane
(acting).............................21 Jul 1837 - 20 Oct 1837
- T. Macleane (2nd
Oct 1837 - 02 Jul 1839
- W. Lockhart (1st
Jul 1839 - 23 Sep 1839
- T. Macleane (3rd
Sep 1839 - 14 Oct 1839
- W. Lockhart (2nd
Oct 1839 - 13 Nov 1839
- Archibald Douglas
Nov 1839 - 03 Apr 1840
Halpin.............................................04 Apr 1840 - 06 Jul
- Archibald Douglas
Jul 1840 - 20 Mar 1841
Selby..............................................21 Mar 1841 - 14 Apr
- W.H. Bayley........................................15
Apr 1841 - Dec 1841
|Early Indian coins:
British India coins:
Coins of Indian Princely States and other