Maratha Confederacy
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian power that dominated much of the Indian subcontinent in the 18th century. The empire formally existed from 1674 with the coronation of Chhatrapati Shivaji and ended in 1818 with the defeat of Peshwa Bajirao II. The Marathas were a Hindu warrior group from the western Deccan Plateau (present day Maharashtra) that rose to prominence by establishing a Hindavi Swarajya. The Marathas became prominent in the seventeenth century under the leadership of Shivaji who revolted against the Adil Shahi dynasty and the Mughal Empire and carved out a kingdom with Raigad as his capital. Known for their mobility, the Marathas were able to consolidate their territory during the Mughal–Maratha Wars and later controlled a large part of the Indian subcontinent.
The origins of the Marathas are lost in the early history of the remote hill country of the Western Ghats in present-day Maharashtra. By the 15th century they had come into occasional prominence for their resistance to Muslim incursions into their homelands. They were a rugged wiry people who, by the 17th century, had accommodated themselves to the political realities of their times by becoming feudatories, or mercenaries, to the sultans of Bijapur. It is not clear exactly what happened to suddenly thrust the Marathas into the limelight of Indian history in the 17th century.
The most likely explanation seems to be that the broad sweep of Aurangzeb's campaigns across the Deccan, his insensitivity towards Hindu sentiment, and the pre-eminence he gave to Islam, all served to politicize a hitherto politically quiescent people. And just as Aurangzeb supplied the occasion, the Marathas found in Sivaji the man. In the 17th century Shahji, the father of Sivaji, was holder of a small fiefdom under the Bijapur sultans. His son, taking advantage of the declining authority of his overlords, seized some of the surrounding territory. Bijapur proved incapable of quelling his insurrection. Drawing encouragement from this experience, Sivaji's forces sacked and plundered the Mughal port of Surat in1664. From this point until his death in 1680 Sivaji maintained a sort of running guerilla war with Aurangzeb. There were no decisive victories for either side but Sivaji left behind him a cohesive and well organized regional alliance in the Western Deccan, a small isolated kingdom in Tanjore and a few pockets of territory on the west coast. After Sivaji's death the struggle was renewed as Aurangzeb advanced into the Deccan. It was the years after Aurangzeb's death in 1707, which really saw revival as the Maratha confederacy gained a new cohesiveness and its military successes
began to make it look as if the Marathas might even become the new masters of India. The revenues of much of the Deccan now flowed into (finished up in) Maratha pockets. Baji Rao I, the Peshwa, pressed as far north as the gates of Delhi and in 1738 he gained control of Malwa. Parts of Gujarat also were in confederacy hands. Bengal was invaded, Orissa annexed (1751), and the territories of the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Carnatic appeared at risk. It was during this period that some of the great Maratha families gained prominence - the Holkars, the Sindhias, the Gaekwars and the Bhonslas - families who later, as the confederacy began to disintegrate and give way to rivalry, would assert their own regional interests at the expense of the alliance.
The turning point for Maratha fortunes was the battle of Panipat on 04 January 1761. Intending to stop the Afghan, Ahmad Shah Abdali (Durrani), in his tracks, the Marathas assembled the greatest army in their history and placed it under the unified command of the Peshwa of Poona. By nightfall the Peshwa's son and heir, Bhao Sahib, and all the leading chiefs, were dead. Maratha losses were said to have been in excess of a hundred thousand men. The Marathas would still remain a force to be reckoned with, they would again cross the Chambel (1767), and they would still give the Nizam's forces a thrashing (1795), but from 1761 onwards internal dissension grew rife and the Maratha Confederacy would never again exhibit sufficient cohesion to be considered a serious contender for the crown of India.
This powerful alliance of Marathi warriors owed nominal allegiance to the Rajas of Satara (descendents of Shivaji) and drew their unity from the leadership of the Peshwa, the hereditary prime minister of the confederation. In the mid-18th century the Marathas were at the apogee of their influence, having hastened the end of effective Mughal power in the Deccan and western India. They successfully checked the intrusions of the Durranis into north India, although the experience left them so militarily exhausted that the dominance in Hindustan passed to other hands.
The great families of the lieutenants of the Peshwa gradually carved out regional power bases and became progressively less responsive to the authority of their formal superiors. The Maratha power, as such, was broken in a series of wars with the East India Company, bitterly fought and very close contests which settled the fate of large sections of India. Broadly speaking, the Marathas may for convenience sake be listed in two categories, the lines which became extinct through British action and those which accommodated the English after defeat and survived to become Princely States. The latter will be found elsewhere in the catalogue; the non-surviving political units are catalogued below. Sivaji's grandson Shahu I granted considerable authority to the Bhat family as hereditary Prime Ministers (Peshwas) and proceeded with Peshwa control of Marathan armies to expand his power base and that of other maratha associate states. After Shahus death in 1749, the Peshwas were the effective rulers of the confederation.
Capital: Prune [Poona] (Satara 1698-1750; Raigarh 1674-1698).

Holkars of Indore.
Shindes of Gwalior.
Gaikwads of Baroda.
Bhonsales of Nagpur (see below).
Puarss of Dewas and Dhar.

              16 Jun 1674  Shivaji Bhonsle secedes from Mughal Empire and creates
                            a Mahratta (Maharashtra) empire; a branch of the Bhonsle
                            family displaces an earlier lineage in Tanjur (Tanjore).
              14 Apr 1680  Shivaji dies, and his lineage maintains an increasingly
                            tenuous paramountcy over the Mahratta chiefs, ruling
                            directly over a district centred at Satara; the "chief
                            minister," styled peshwa, soon governs a quasi-independent
                            polity - from 1713 the peshwa is chosen from the ruling
                            Bhonsle family.
                     1731  The Mahratta states of Baroda, Gwalior, and Indaur (Indore)
                            become de facto independent.
                     1743  The Mahratta state of Nagpur becomes de facto independent.
              11 Jun 1793  Tanjur a British protectorate.
              20 Oct 1799  Tanjur (Tanjore), with the exception of the capital
                            fortress, is annexed to British India.
              03 Jun 1818  The "Peshwa's Dominions" are annexed to British India.
              01 May 1849  Satara, the site of the Mahratta paramount ruler, is
                            annexed to British India.
              11 Dec 1853  Nagpur is annexed to British India.
              30 Oct 1855  Tanjur (Tanjore) fortress is annexed to British India.
                 Jul 1857  Rebellion by son of the last Peshwa.
PESHWA (Prime Minister) - leaders of the Maratha Confederation, located at Poona.
  • Balaji Vishwanath Bhat S/o Vishwanathpant (Visaji).16 Nov 1713 - 02 Apr 1719 d. 1719
  • He was born in 1662 into a Konkanastha Brahmin (aka Chitpavan) family. He gained effective control of the Maratha Empire during the 18th century. Balaji Vishwanath assisted a young Maratha Emperor Shahu to consolidate his grip on a kingdom that had been racked by civil war and persistent attack by the Mughals under Aurangzeb. He was called "the second founder of the Maratha State." Later,his son Bajirao became the Peshwa. His second son Chimnaji Appa won the Vasai fort. The decline of the Mughal Empire following the 27-year Mughal-Maratha war (1680–1707) led to rapid territorial gains for the Maratha Empire.
  • Baji Rao I (Pahila Bajirao) S/o Balaji Vishwanath.02 Apr 1719 - 25 Apr 1740 d. 1740
  • He was born in 1698. He is also known by the name Bajirao Ballal. Baji Rao is credited with expanding the Maratha Empire, especially in North India, which contributed to its reaching a zenith during his son's reign twenty years after his death. In his military career spanning 20 years, Baji Rao never lost a battle. According to the British Army officer Bernard Montgomery, Baji Rao was possibly the finest cavalry general ever produced by India. Under Peshwa Baji Rao, Gujarat, Malwa and Rajputana came under Maratha control. Finally, in 1737, Baji Rao defeated the Mughals on the outskirts of Delhi and brought much of the former Mughal territories south of Delhi under Maratha control.
  • Balaji Baji Rao [Nana Sahib]......................25 Apr 1740 - 23 Jun 1761 d. 1761
  • He was born on 08 December 1720. After Baji Rao died in April 1740, Chhatrapati Shahu appointed 19-year old Balaji as the Peshwa, despite opposition from other chiefs such as Shahu's own relative Raghoji I Bhonsle. Balaji Baji Rao was married to Gopikabai. The couple had three sons. Madhava Rao who succeeded his father Nana Sahib as Peshwa and Narayan Rao who succeeded Madhava Rao in his late teens. Nana Saheb had an able brother called Raghunath Rao whose ambitions to be the Peshwa became disastrous for the Maratha empire. During Balaji Baji Rao tenure, the Chhatrapati (Maratha king) was reduced to a mere figurehead. At the same time, the Maratha empire started transforming into a confederacy, in which individual chiefs — such as the Holkars, the Scindias and the Bhonsles of Nagpur kingdom — became more powerful. During Balaji Rao's tenure, the Maratha territory reached its zenith. A large part of this expansion, however, was led by the individual chiefs, whose acts of plundering alienated the masses. By the end of Balaji Rao's tenure, the Peshwa was reduced to more of a financier than a general. Unlike his father, Balaji Rao was not a great military leader and failed to gauge the seriousness of Durrani invasions in northern India. This ultimately resulted in a massive Maratha defeat by Ahmad Shah Durrani at the Third Battle of Panipat on 14 January 1761. Marathas suffered heavy losses including Nana Sahib's eldest son and heir Vishwas Rao and cousin Sadashiv Rao Bhau. Unable to bear the suffering, he died of depression on 23 June 1761.
  • Madhava Rao Ballal S/o Balaji Baji Rao............23 Jun 1761 - 18 Nov 1772 d. 1772
  • He was born on February 14, 1745. In February 1762, Peshwas set out to conquer Karnataka. This was one of the earliest wars against the Nizam when conflict arose between Madhavrao and his uncle Raghunathrao. Due to difference of opinion between the two, Raghunathrao decided to abandon the troop midway and return to Pune, while Madhavrao continued. Eventually, a treaty was signed with the Nizam and Madhavrao returned. Both Madhavrao and Raghunathrao had their preferences even over the Sardars(Generals). Madhavrao usually preferred the company of Gopalrao Patwardhan, Tryambakrao Mama Pethe, Nana Fadnavis and Ramshastri Prabhune; while Raghunathrao was dearer to Sakharambapu, Gulabrao and Gangoba Tatya.
  • The discord between Madhavrao and Raghunathrao was increasing and on August 22, 1762, Raghunathrao fled to Vadgaon Maval where he started grooming his own army. Raghunathrao's men started looting the nearby villages for warfare and this act angered Madhavrao. He decided to wage a war against his uncle Ragunathrao on November 07, 1762. However, Madhavrao didn't wish to battle against his own uncle and thus, proposed for a treaty. Raghunathrao agreed to sign the treaty with Madhavrao and asked him to move back to a non-attacking position. Madhavrao did so. However, Raghunathrao deceived Madhavrao. When the Maratha camp under Madhavrao was relaxed and unsuspecting of a battle, they were caught unawared as Raghunathrao attacked treacherously. Thus, Madhavrao was defeated in this war and on November 12, 1762 surrendered himself to Raghunathrao near Alegaon. After the surrender, Raghunathrao decided to control all the major decisions under the assistance of Sakharam Bapu. He also decided to befriend Nizam, but this proved to be a wrong masterplan as Nizam slowly started infiltrating the zones of Maratha Empire. As time slipped by, Madhavrao pointed out the gravity of the situation to his uncle. Eventually on March 7, 1763 the Peshwas, once again under Madhavrao's leadership, decided to attack Aurangabad to crush Nizam. After months of chasing, Peshwas faced Nizam's army on August 10, 1763 in the Battle of Rakshasbhuvan near Aurangabad. Nizam's army suffered huge losses in this war, but Nizam himself fled away.
  • In January 1764, for the second time, Madhavrao decided to gather up his defences and conquer Hyder Ali. This time his massive army included efficient generals like Gopalrao Patwardhan, Murarrao Ghorpade, Vinchurkar and Naro Shankar. Raghunathrao declined his offer to join him and instead chose to visit Nashik. This was a particularly long conquest which went for almost a year in and around the districts of Karnataka. However, Hyder Ali somehow managed to escape the clutches of the Peshwas. Eventually, Madhavrao decided to call Raghunathrao for his assistance, but Raghunathrao only signed a treaty with Hyder Ali, much to Madhavrao’s disappointment. Raghunathrao intentionally made this move, since he was now fearfully aware of Madhavrao's burgeoning power. Additionally, his loyal assistant Sakharam bapu also warned him against the consequences of conquering Hyder Ali. Peshwa’s failure to impose authority over Hyder Ali triggered a major setback on Madhavrao’s health. In 1767, Madhavrao I organized a 3rd expedition against Hyder Ali and inflicted defeats on Hyder Ali in the battles of Sira and Madgiri and made a surprise discovery of Queen Virammaji the last ruler of the Keladi Nayaka Kingdom and her son who were kept in confinement in the fort of Madgiri by Hyder Ali. They were rescued by Madhavrao I and were sent to Pune for protection. On 18 November 1772 died due to tuberculosis. His wife Ramabai chose to sacrifice her life (sati) with his body at the time of cremation, even though Peshwas do not follow that ritual.
  • Narayan Rao S/o Balaji Baji Rao...................18 Nov 1772 - 30 Aug 1773 d. 1773
  • He was born on 10 August 1755. He was 17 years old when he became the fifth Peshwa or de facto ruler of the Maratha Empire from November 1772 until his murder in August 1773 by Raghunath Rao. He married Gangabai Sathe who later gave birth to Sawai Madhavrao Peshwa on 18 April 1774. There is a belief in Pune that Narayanrao's ghost roams the ruins of Shaniwar Wada at every full moon night and one can hear his voice saying "Kaka Mala Vaachva" (Save Me Uncle) as nobody came to help him at the night of his death.
  • Raghunath Rao.....................................30 Aug 1773 - 1774 d. 1783
  • He was born on 18 August 1734. He was also known as Ragho Ballal or Ragho Bharari. Raghunath Rao became Peshwa but was soon was deposed by the courtiers and knights of the Empire. They instead installed Gangabai's new born son, Sawai Madhavrao as the Peshwa with the courtiers themselves, led by Nana Fadnavis, as the Regents. Raghunathrao, unwilling to give up his position of power, sought help from the British at Bombay and signed the Treaty of Surat on 06 March 1775. According to the treaty, Raghunathrao ceded the territories of Salsette and Bassein to the British, along with part of the revenues from Surat and Bharuch districts. In return, the British promised to provide Raghunathrao with 2,500 soldiers. Raghunathrao died on 11 December 1783 of unknown causes.
  • Conflicts with Mughal Empire: Raghunath Rao imprisoned Mughal Emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur and made Alamgir II as Emperor in his place. Mughal forces massacred by the Maratha during the Battle of Sikandarabad in May 1754. This battle resulted in the complete shift of power from the Mughal Emperor rule to their Ministers. Ahmad Shah Bahadur was deposed by Vizier Ghazi ud-Din Khan Feroze Jung III in 1754 and later blinded along with his mother. Alamgir II ruled for five years (1754-1759) and Shah Jahan III was placed on the Mughal throne in December 1759 as a result of the intricacies in Delhi with the help of Imad-ul-Mulk. Shah Jahan III was later deposed by Maratha Sardars within a year in 1760 and Shah Alam II was made Mughal Emperor (1760-1788). Muhammad Bidar Bakht, Mughal Emperor ruled for a brief period in 1788 and was deposed in the same year by the Marathas and killed in 1790 on the orders of Emperor Shah Alam II, who again became Mughal Emperor (1788-1806).
  • Sawai Madhava Rao II S/o Narayan Rao..............18 Apr 1774 - 25 Oct 1795 d. 1795
  • He was born in 18 April 1774. He was Peshwa of the Maratha Empire in India, from his infancy. He was known as Sawai Madhav Rao or Madhav Rao Narayan. He was the posthumous son of Narayanrao Peshwa. He was made Peshawa when he was barely 40 days. The Treaty of Salbai was signed on May 17, 1782, by representatives of the Maratha Empire and the British East India Company after long negotiations to settle the outcome of the First Anglo-Maratha War (1775–1782). Maratha won the warrand under its terms, the Company retained control of Salsette and Broach and acquired guarantees that the Marathas would defeat Hyder Ali of Mysore and retake territories in the Carnatic. The Marathas also guaranteed that the French would be prohibited from establishing settlements on their territories. In return, the British agreed to pension off their protégé, Raghunath Rao, and acknowledge Madhavrao II as Peshwa of the Maratha Empire. The British also recognized the territorial claims of the Mahadji Shinde west of the Jumna River and all the territories occupied by the British after the Treaty of Purandar were given back to the Marathas. The Treaty of Purandhar (01 March 1776) annulled that of Surat, Raghunath Rao was pensioned and his cause abandoned, but the revenues of Salsette and Broach districts were retained by the British. The Treaty of Salbai resulted in a period of relative peace between the Maratha Empire and the British East India Company until outbreak of the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805). David Anderson concluded the Treaty of Salbai on behalf of the East India Company.
  • Madhavrao was fond of out-doors and had a private collection of exotic animals such as lions and Rhinoceros close to where the later Peshwe park zoo in Pune was situated. He was particularly fond of his herd of trained dancing deer. Madhavrao committed suicide at the age of 21 by jumping off from the high walls of the Shaniwar Wada in Pune. The cause of the suicide probably was that he could not endure the highhandedness of Nana Fadnavis. Just before his suicide, it is said that in ordering the execution of the despised police commissioner, Ghashiram Kotwal, Madhavrao was able to defy the wishes of Nana for the first time.
    • Nana Fadnavis (Administrator/Regent)................1774 - 13 Mar 1800 d. 1800
    • Nana Phadnavis (also Fadanvis and Furnuwees and abbreviated as Phadnis) was probably born on February 12, 1742. He was born as Balaji Janardan Bhanu and was an influential minister and statesman of the Maratha Empire during the Peshwa administration in Pune, India. James Grant Duff states that he was called "the Marattha Machiavelli" by the Europeans. He died on March 13, 1800.
  • Chimaji Appa Rao S/o Raghunath Rao................25 Oct 1795 - 06 Dec 1796 d. 1830
  • He was born in 1783. Raghunathrao had two sons Baji Rao II and Chimaji Rao II; in addition, he had adopted Amrit Rao. After his death, his wife Anandi Bai and his three sons were kept in confinement by the Peshwa's minister Nana Fadnavis. After the death of Peshwa Madhav Rao II, Nana Fadnavis and the powerful chief Daulat Rao Scindia installed Chimaji Rao and Baji Rao II as puppet Peshwas in quick succession.
  • Baji Rao II S/o Raghunath Rao.....................06 Dec 1796 - 03 Jun 1818 d. 1853
  • He was born in 10 January 1773. He was installed as a puppet ruler by the Maratha nobles.
  • On Sunday, 25 October 1802, on the festival of Diwali, Yashwantrao Holkar defeated the combined armies of Scindia and Peshwa at Hadapsar, near Pune (Battle of Poona). The battle took place at Ghorpadi, Banwadi and Hadapsar. Maharaja Yashwantrao Holkar is said to have ordered his army not to attack first and wait until 25 cannonballs were fired from other side; when the 25 cannonballs were fired, Maharaja Yashwantrao Holkar ordered his army to attack. As soon as he won the war, he ordered his army not to harm the civilians of Pune. The war was between rival factions of the Maratha Confederacy. The forces of the Scindia (Shinde) and the Peshwa Bajirao II were attacked by the Holkars. While the British East India Company was not involved in the battle, its outcome and aftermath led to the Second Anglo-Maratha War. Maratha nobles growing power prompted Baji Rao II to flee his capital Pune and sign the Treaty of Bassein (31 December 1802) with the British. This resulted in the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-1805), in which the British emerged victorious and re-installed him as the titular Peshwa.
  • British won the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-1805) and three treaty were signed. On December 17, 1803, Raghoji II Bhonsale of Nagpur signed the Treaty of Deogaon in Odisha with the British after the Battle of Argaon and gave up the province of Cuttack (which included Mughalbandi/the coastal part of Odisha, Garjat/the princely states of Odisha, Balasore Port, parts of Midnapore district of West Bengal). On 30 December 1803, the Daulat Scindia signed the Treaty of Surji-Anjangaon with the British after the Battle of Assaye and Battle of Laswari and ceded to the British Rohtak, Gurgaon, Ganges-Jumna Doab, the Delhi-Agra region, parts of Bundelkhand, Broach, some districts of Gujarat and the fort of Ahmmadnagar. The British started hostilities against Yashwantrao Holkar on 06 April 1804. The Treaty of Rajghat, signed on 24 December 1805, forced Holkar to give up Tonk, Rampura, and Bundi.
  • In 1817, Baji Rao II joined the Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-1818) against the British, after they favoured the Gaekwad nobles in a revenue-sharing dispute. The Treaty of Poona was signed on 01 June 1817 between the East India Company and the Peshwa (ruler) of Bundelkhand, Baji Rao II. The treaty resulted in the British gaining control of the territory north of the Narmada River and south of the Tungabhadra River. Baji Rao also had to give up any claim to Gaikwad. Finally, "he was not to communicate, in any manner, with any other power in India." On 13 June 1817, the Company forced Baji Rao II to sign an agreement renouncing claims on Gaekwad's reveues and ceding large swaths of territory to the British. This treaty of Pune formally ended the Peshwa's titular overlordship over other Maratha chiefs, thus officially ending the Maratha confederacy. After suffering several battle defeats, the Peshwa surrendered to the British, and agreed to retire in return for an estate at Bithoor and an annual pension.
  • Great Britain thereafter...
  • Sahib Nana (Dhondu Pant) [in rebellion].........................Jul 1857 d. 1859
  • Nana Sahib (born 19 May 1824 – disappeared 1857), born as Nana Govind Dhondu Pant at Bithoor, was an Indian Maratha aristocrat and fighter, who led the rebellion in Cawnpore (Kanpur) during the 1857 uprising. He parents were Narayan Bhatt and Ganga Bai. As the adopted son of the exiled Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao II, Nana Sahib believed that he was entitled to a pension from the English East India Company, but the underlying contractual issues are rather murky. The Company's refusal to continue the pension after his father's death, as well as what he perceived as high-handed policies, compelled him to revolt and seek independence from company rule in India. He forced the British garrison in Kanpur to surrender, then executed the survivors, gaining control of Cawnpore for a few days. He later disappeared, after his forces were defeated by a British force that recaptured Cawnpore. He was led to the Nepal Hills in 1859, where he is thought to have died.
  • British Residents in Poona (Pune)
  • Charles Warre Malet..............................03 Mar 1786 - 21 Feb 1797 d. 1815
  • Joshua Uhthoff (acting)..........................21 Feb 1797 - 24 Mar 1798 d. 1818
  • William Palmer...................................24 Mar 1798 - 18 Dec 1801 d. 1816
  • Barry Close.............................................1801 - 1811 d. 1813
  • Mountstuart Elphinstone.................................1811 - 1819 d. 1859
In the latter 17th century, a nationalist revolution erupted out of the Bijapur area, leading to a revival of Hinduism and native Indian strength in their own land. The instigator of this movement, Sivaji the Great, established a new Hindu kingdom within western Maharashtra at Satara, within the old Deccan successor state of Bijapur. See below the Peshwas at Poona for leaders of the Maratha Confederation.
  • BHONSLE (title Maharaja Chatrapati)
  • Shivaji I the Great S/o Shahaji Bhonsle.(1655-) 06 Jun 1674 - 03 Apr 1680 d. 1680
  • Shivaji was born in the hill-fort of Shivneri, near the city of Junnar in Pune district on 06 April 1627 or 19 February 1630. Per legend, his mother named him Shivaji in honour of the goddess Shivai, to whom she had prayed for a healthy child. Shivaji's father Shahaji Bhonsle was a Maratha general who served the Deccan Sultanates. His mother was Jijabai, the daughter of Lakhujirao Jadhav of Sindkhed (Sindkhed Raja). At the time of Shivaji's birth, the power in Deccan was shared by three Islamic sultanates: Bijapur, Ahmednagar, and Golconda. Shahaji often changed his loyalty between the Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar, the Adilshah of Bijapur and the Mughals, but always kept his jagir (fiefdom) at Pune and his small army with him.
  • In 1659, Adil Shah sent Afzal Khan, an experienced and veteran general to destroy Shivaji in an effort to put down what he saw as a regional revolt. The two met in a hut at the foothills of Pratapgad fort on 10 November 1659. The arrangements had dictated that each come armed only with a sword, and attended by a follower. Shivaji, either suspecting Afzal Khan would attack him or secretly planning to attack, wore armour beneath his clothes, concealed a bagh nakh (metal "tiger claw") on his left arm, and had a dagger in his right hand. Accounts vary on whether Shivaji or Afzal Khan struck the first blow: the Maratha chronicles accuse Afzal Khan of treachery, while the Persian-language chronicles attribute the treachery to Shivaji. In the fight, Afzal Khan's dagger was stopped by Shivaji's armour, and Shivaji's weapons inflicted mortal wounds on the general; Shivaji then signalled his hidden troops to launch the assault on the Bijapuris. In the ensuing Battle of Pratapgarh fought on 10 November 1659, Shivaji's forces decisively defeated the Bijapur Sultanate's forces. This unexpected and unlikely victory made Shivaji a hero of Maratha folklore and a legendary figure among his people. To counter the loss, at Pratapgad and to defeat the newly emerging Maratha power, another army, this time numbering over 10,000, was sent against Shivaji, commanded by Bijapur's Abyssinian general Rustam Zaman. With a cavalry force of 5,000 Marathas, Shivaji attacked them near Kolhapur on 28 December 1659. In a swift movement, Shivaji led a full frontal attack at the centre of the enemy forces while two other portions of his cavalry attacked the flanks. This battle lasted for several hours and at the end Bijapuri forces were soundly defeated and Rustamjaman fled the battlefield. This victory alarmed Aurangzeb, who now derisively referred to Shivaji as the "Mountain Rat", and prepared to address this rising Maratha threat.
  • Attack on Shahista khan and Surat, enraged the Mughal emperor, Aurangzeb. In response he sent Mirza Raja Jai Singh I with an army numbering around 150,000 to defeat Shivaji. Jai Singh's forces made significant gains and captured many Maratha forts, forcing Shivaji to come to terms with Aurangzeb rather than lose more forts and men. In the Treaty of Purandar, signed between Shivaji and Jai Singh on 11 June 1665, Shivaji agreed to give up 23 of his forts and pay compensation of 400,000 rupees to the Mughals. He also agreed to let his son Sambhaji become a Mughal sardar, serve the Mughal court of Aurangzeb and fight alongside the Mughals against Bijapur. One of Shivaji's commander, Netaji Palkar joined the Mughals, was rewarded very well for his bravery, converted to Islam, changed his name to Quli Mohammed Khan in 1666 and was sent to the Afghan frontier to fight the restive tribes. He returned to Shivaji's service in 1676 after ten years with the Mughals, and was accepted back as a Hindu on Shivaji's advice.
  • Shambhuji I S/o Shivaji I.......................05 Apr 1680 - 11 Mar 1689 d. 1689
  • Sambhaji (May 14, 1657 – March 11, 1689) was the second ruler of the Maratha Kingdom. He was the eldest son of Shivaji I, the founder of Maratha Empire and his first wife Saibai. He was successor of the realm after his father's death, and ruled it for 9 years. Sambhaji's rule was largely shaped by the ongoing wars between the Maratha kingdom and Mughal Empire as well as other neighbouring powers such as the Siddis, Mysore and the Portuguese in Goa. In 1689, Sambhaji was captured, tortured and executed by the Mughals and succeeded by his brother Rajaram I.
  • Rajaram I S/o Shivaji I.........................11 Mar 1689 - 03 Mar 1700 d. 1700
  • Rajaram Raje Bhonsle (24 February 1670 – 03 March 1700 Sinhagad) was the younger son of Maratha ruler Chhatrapati Shivaji, and half-brother of Sambhaji. He had a very short reign, during which he was engaged in a struggle with the Mughals. After the death of Sambhaji, Rajaram was crowned at Raigad on 12 March 1689. As the Mughals started laying siege to the region around Raigad on 25 March 1689, the widow of Sambhaji, Maharani Yesubai and her minister Ramchandra Pant Amatya sent young Rajaram to the stronghold of Pratapgad through Kavlya ghat. The Maratha army fought with the Mughals and led the new Maratha king, Rajaram to escape through Kavlya ghat to the fort of Jinji in present-day state of Tamil Nadu via Pratapgad and Vishalgad forts, Rajaram reached Keladi in disguise and sought refuge from Keladi Chennamma - The brave queen fought the Mughals and ensured safe passage and escape of Rajaram to Jinji, Keladi Chennamma fought the jungle warfare which frustrated the Mughals and the Mughals proposed peace accord for the first time with an Indian ruler, Keladi Chennamma ensured safe travel of Rajaram to jingi by fighting the mughals where he reached after a month and a half long journey on 1 November 1689. Details of this escape are known from the incomplete poetical biography of Rajaram, the Rajaramacharita written by his Rajpurohit, Keshav Pandit, in Sanskrit.
  • Aurangzeb deputed Ghazi-ud-din Firoze Jung against the Marathas in the Deccan, and specially sent Zulfiqar Khan Nusrat Jung to capture the Jingi Fort. He laid siege to it in September, 1690. After three failed attempts, it was finally captured after seven years on 08 January 1698. Rajaram, however, escaped and fled first to Vellore and later to Vishalgarh. Rajaram occupied the fort at Jinji from 11 November 1689, but left before it fell in 1698, setting up his court at fort Satara. During that period when Jinji remained unconquered, "the intrepid Maratha commanders, Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav, wrought havoc in the Karnataka and Maharashtra by defeating the Mughal generals and cutting off their lines of communication." Rajaram died of lung disease in 1700 at Sinhagad near Pune in Maharashtra leaving behind widows and infants. Ambikabai, one of his widows, committed Sati upon Rajaram's death. Another of Rajaram's widows, Tarabai proclaimed her young son, Shivaji II as the Chhatrapati and ruled as his regent. However, the release of Shahu, by the successors of Aurangzeb led to an internecine conflict between Tarabai and Shahu with the latter becoming the winner and occupant of the throne. Tarabai established a separate seat at Kolhapur and installed her son as the rival chhtrapati. She was shortly deposed by Rajasbai, the other surviving widow of Rajaram. Rajasbai installed the other son of Rajaram called Sambhaji II on the Kolhapur throne. The Kolhapur line has continued to this day through natural succession and adoptions per Hindu custom.
  • Shivaji II S/o Rajaram I........................03 Mar 1700 - 12 Oct 1707 d. 1726
  • Shivaji II or Shiva Rajaram (June 09, 1696 – March 04, 1726) was son of Maratha ruler Chhattrapati Rajaram and his wife Tarabai. Shivaji II served as Raja of Kolhapur from 1710 to 1714. At that time, he was once again deposed by his step-mother Rajasbai who installed her own son, Sambhaji II on the Kolhapur throne. Shivaji II posthumously became father of a son, later called Rajaram II of Satara who was brought up in obscurity for his own protection. When Shahu, without a male heir to succeed to his throne, wanted to adopt a son, Tarabai disclosed this fact to him in late 1740s. Shahu adopted Rajaram II who succeeded Shahu as the Chhatrapati following Shahu's death.
  • Tara Bai (female - regent)......................03 Mar 1700 - 12 Oct 1707 d. 1761
  • Tarabai Bhosale (b. 1675 - d. 09 December 1761 at Satara) was the regent of the Maratha empire of India from 1700 until 1707. She was the queen of Chhatrapati Rajaram Bhosale, daughter-in-law of the empire's founder Shivaji and mother of Shivaji II. She is acclaimed for her role in keeping alive the resistance against Mughal occupation of Maratha territories after the death of her spouse, and acted as regent during the minority of her son. The Mughal–Maratha Wars (September 1681 – May 1707) were fought between the Maratha Empire and the Mughal Empire from 1680 to 1707. The Deccan Wars started in 1680 with the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb’s invasion of the Maratha enclave in Bijapur established by Shivaji. The Maratha country was relieved at the news of the death of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb who died at Khuldabad in Aurangabad in 1707. Maratha expansion after Aurangzeb's death.
  • Shahuji I S/o Shambhuji I.......................12 Oct 1707 - 15 Dec 1749 d. 1749
  • He was born in 1689. Shahu Bhonsle (b. 18 May 1682 – d. 15 December 1749) was the fifth Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire created by his grandfather, Shivaji. He was son of Sambhaji I, Shivaji's eldest son and successor. Shahu, as a child, was taken prisoner along with his mother in 1689 by Mughal General,Nusrat Jang. After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, leading Mughal courtiers released Shahu with a force of fifty men, thinking that a friendly Maratha leader would be a useful ally. At that time he fought a brief war with his aunt Tarabai in an internecine conflict to gain the Maratha throne in 1708. Under Shahu's reign, Maratha power and influence extended to all corners of the Indian subcontinent. However his reign saw power moving from the ruler to his ministers (the Peshwas) and the generals who had carved out their own fiefdoms such as the Shindes, Holkars, Gaekwad and Bhonsle of Nagpur.
  • Ramaraja II S/o Shivaji II.....................15 Dec 1749 - 11 Dec 1777 d. 1777
  • He was born in 1726. Rajaram II Bhonsle, also known as Ramaraja, was the 6th monarch of Maratha Empire. He was an adopted son of Chhattrapati Shahu. Tarabai had presented him to Shahu as her own grandson and used him to grab power after Shahu's death. However, after being sidelined, Tarabai later signed a peace treaty with the Peshwa, acknowledging his superiority. On September 14, 1752, Tarabai and the Peshwa took an oath at Khandoba temple in Jejuri, promising mutual peace. At this oath ceremony, Tarabai also swore that Rajaram II was not her grandson, but an imposter from the Gondhali caste. Nevertheless, the Peshwa retained Rajaram II as the titular Chhhatrapati and a powerless figurehead.
  • Shahuji II "Appa Sahib" S/o Vithoji Bhonsle.....11 Dec 1777 - 03 May 1808 d. 1808
  • He was born in 1763. He was the son Vithoji Bhonsle and adoptive son of Rajaram II of Satara.
  • Pratap Singh "Bowa Sahib" S/o Shahuji II........03 May 1808 - 05 Sep 1839 d. 1847
  • The Peshwa ruled as Regent ruled during 03 May 1808 - Feb 1818. Pratap Singh Bhosle (18 January 1793 - 14 October 1847) was the eldest son of Shahu II of Satara and Girjabai Raje Bhosle. He was the nominal emperor of the Maratha Empire, Satara from 1808 to 1819 and Raja of Satara but the main control was under the hands of Peshwas until 1839 when he was deposed by the British. He was dethroned and stripped of his powers and personal possessions in 1839. He was exiled to Benares and granted an allowance for his maintenance. Rango Bapuji Gupte a loyal Sardar to him, fight a lot in legal battles up to London but invain to give justice to his beloved king.
  • Shahuji III Raja "Appa Sahib" S/o Trimbukji.....05 Sep 1839 - 05 Apr 1848 d. 1848
  • He was born in 1802 as Jangli. Shahuji III ruled the Indian city of Satara and the surrounding Satara district from 1839 until 1848. He was also known as Appa Sahib, and his full titles were Shreemant Maharaj Shaji Raja Chhatrapati of Satara. His father was Trimbukji Bhonsle and adoptive father was Pratap Singh. Appa Sahib succeeded his father under the title Shreemant Maharaj Shajee Raja Chuttraputtee of Satara. After Pratap Singh death, the British questioned the irregularity of his adoption, refused to recognize the succession, and annexed the state of Satara to the Presidency of Bombay under the doctrine of lapse on 01 May 1849.
  • Venkatji "Bowa Sahib"...........................05 Apr 1848 - 01 May 1849 d. 1864
  • He was born in c. 1840.
  • To Great Britain thereafter...
  • British Residents
  • James Cunningham Grant-Duff.............................1813 - 1823 d. 1858
  • John Briggs.............................................1823 - 1827 d. 1875
  • Archibald Robertson.....................................1827 - 1832 d. 1847
  • Peter Lodwick...........................................1832 - 1836 d. 18..
  • Charles Ovans...........................................1836 - 1844 d. 1858
  • James Outram........................................May 1845 - May 1847 d. 1863
  • Henry Bartle Frere......................................1847 - 1849 d. 1884

Maratha occupied Itawa in AH 1172 (1759) and countermarked pervious Mughal coins produced here. Maratha countermark can be seen on left side of this coin on the Obverse side.

India Mughal KM#377.34 Rupee. Year: ND - RY4 [1716]. Weight: 11.29g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 25.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Itawa (Etawah). Ruler: Farrukh-Siyar S/o Azim-ush-Shan (1713-1719).

Itawa was with Maratha AH 1172/RY1 to AH 1175/RY3 (1759-1762); Rohilla until reconquest by Marathas in AH 1184/RY12 (1771). Ceded to Awadh AH 1188/RY15 (1774).

KM#206 Rupee. Year: ND - RY6 [1723]. Weight: 11.36g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 22.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Azamnagar Gokak (Gokak in Karnataka state).

Many testing marks and countermarks seen on both sides of this coin.

Obverse:  "سکہ زد در جہان باطف الہ" (Struck coin in the world by the favour of God). "بادشاہ زمان محمد شاہ" (Muhammad Shah, Emperor of the Age) / ND. Reverse: Zarb Azamnagar Gokak (6) julus maimanat manus (Struck at Azamnagar Gokak in the year 6th of the accession associated with tranquil prosperity). Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type. Ruler: Roshan Akhtar Mohammed Shah S/o Khujistan Akhtar (1719-1748). This coin has the early couplet of Muhammad Shah.

Note: Gokak (Kannada Gokak or Gokaka) is a taluka headquarters in the Belagavi District of Karnataka state, India. It is located around 70 km from Belagavi at the confluence of two rivers, the Ghataprabha and the Markandeya. The common language in use is Kannada. Gokak is surrounded on one side by a range of hills, and on the other side by a vast plain of black soil. The river Ghataprabha flows from the north side of the city and cascades down through a cleft of 167 ft, to form Gokak Falls before flowing through the town. Since the colonial era, the a hydroelectric station under the waterfall has been used to power Gokak Mills, one of the largest manufacturers and exporters of yarn in India. The river Markandeya, a tributary of the Ghataprabha, dashes down through 43 ft step wise hill plates to form Goduchinamalaki Falls.

KM#225 Rupee. Year: ND - RY6 [1759]. Weight: 11.48g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 23.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Slightly rotated. Mint: Ahmadabad. Obverse: Sikka Mubarak Badshah Ghazi Alamgir (Auspicious coin of the fighter of infidels (Ghazi), the emperor Alamgir) / ND.
Reverse: Zarb Ahmadabad (6) julus maimanat manus (Struck at Ahmadabad in the year 6 of the accession associated with tranquil prosperity). Mint mark: Ankus. Mintage Years: AH1168//1, AH1169//2, AH1169//3, AH1170//3, AH1170//4, AH1171//4 and AH117x//6 (1754-1759). Ruler: Aziz ud-Din Alamgir II S/o Jahandar Shah (1754-1759).

Note: The Marathas took control of Ahmadabad in the last year of Ahmad Shah Bahadur. The 'Ankus' mint mark was introduced on the coins of Ahmadabad which continued in the early years of Alamgir II. In the 3rd and 4th year of Alamgir II's reign Momin Khan of Khambayat captured Ahmadabad and the 'Ankus' was replaced by flower. The Marathas wrested control of Ahmadabad in the 5th year of reign of Alamgir II and the 'Ankus' returned on the coins.

One of Maratha Mints at Ahmadabad from 1757-1800, was leased to Baroda from 1800-1804, returned during 1804-1806, released to Baroda in 1806, and ceded to Gaekwar of Baroda in 1817 (AH 1232). In 1818, it was annexed by the East India Company and finally closed in 1835.

KM#251 Rupee. Year: ND - RY 10 [1769]. Weight: 11.65g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 23.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Ahmadabad. Obverse legend: Sikka Mubarak Badshah Ghazi Shah Alam. [Auspicious coin of the fighter of infidels (Ghazi), the emperor Shah Alam] / ND.

Reverse: Zarb Ahmadabad (10) julus maimanat manus (Struck at Ahmadabad in the year 10 of the accession associated with tranquil prosperity). Mint mark: Ankus. Mintage Years: AH-//5, AH-//8, AH-//10, AH-//11, AH118x//12, AH-//13, AH-//14, AH1187//15, AH1188//15, AH1188//16, AH-//17, AH1192//20, AH119x//21, AH1194//22, AH119x//23, AH1194//24, AH1195//22, AH1196//24, AH1197//24, AH-//25, AH-//26, AH-//27, AH-//29, AH1205//3X, AH1207//33, AH1208//34, AH-//35, AH-//36, AH1209, AH-//37 and AH-//38 (1764-1797). Ruler: Shah Alam II [Ali Gauhar] S/o Alamgir II (1760-1788 and 1788-1806). Note: Somehow Scarce.

Reverse Persian Legend: "سنہ جلوس میمنت مانوس" (in the year of the accession associated with tranquil prosperity).

Same as above coin but mint name and mint mark 'Ankus' missing.

Year: ND - RY 20 [1778]. Weight: 11.36g. Diameter: 20.00 mm. Alignment: Rotated (9 o'clock).

KM#270 Rupee. Year: ND - RY 24 [1783]. Weight: 11.11g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 18.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Balwantnagar (Jhansi).

Obverse legend: "سکہ زد بر ہفت کشور سایہ فضل الہ" (Struck coin in the seven climes the shadow of the divine favour). "حامی دین محمد شاہ عالم بادشاہ" (The defender of the faith of Prophet Muhammad, the emperor Shah Alam) / ND. Reverse: Zarb Balwantnagar (24) julus maimanat manus (Struck at Balwantnagar in the year 24 of the accession associated with tranquil prosperity). Mint mark: Ankus. Mintage Years: AH1187//15, AH1187//16, AH1187//17, AH1187//18, AH1189//16, AH1192//20, AH1192//21, AH1194//22, AH(119)6//23, AH1197//24, AH1198//25, ND-//27, AH-//28, AH1209//29, AH-//30 and AH-//31 (1773-1788). Ruler: Shah Alam II [Ali Gauhar] S/o Alamgir II (1760-1788 and 1788-1806). Note: Common.

Reverse Persian Legend: "سنہ جلوس میمنت مانوس" (in the year of the accession associated with tranquil prosperity).

Kolhapur - A proper Marathan state within central India.
                     1710  Former ruler Shivaji II of Satara founds Kolhapur state.
              01 Oct 1812  British protectorate.
  • BHONSLE (title: Raja Chhatrapati)
  • Shivaji I S/o Shahaji Bhonsle...........................1710 - 02 Aug 1714 d. 1726
  • He was born on 06 June 1696 at Jinji, married 1stly, Rani Shrimant Bhavanibai Raje Saheb, married 2ndly, Rani Shrimant Parvatibai Raje Saheb (commited sati March 1726). Shivaji I died of smallpox on 14 March 1726.
  • Shambhuji S/o Shivaji I..........................02 Aug 1714 - 20 Dec 1760 d. 1760
  • He was born on 23rd May 1698 at Panhala. He signed the Treaty of Warna formally separating Satara and Kolhapur in 1731. He had married seven times and died on 20 December 1760.
    • Jijibai Sahib Bhonsle (female - Regent).....20 Dec 1760 - 17 Feb 1773 d. 1773
  • Shivaji II.......................................22 Sep 1762 - 24 Apr 1813 d. 1813
  • He was born on 16 March 1756, adopted by Rani Shrimant Jijibai on 22 September 1762 and succeeded on 27 September 1762. A commercial Treaty was signed with the British Government on 12 January 1766 and another treaty was signed in November 1792 permitting the construction of two factories; during his reign. The Raja was engaged in battles with other Maratha powers and his government was weakened by internal factions. He signed another treaty on 01 October 1812, by which he was guaranteed against further aggression by all powers. He  married 13 wifes and had 8 children. He died on 24 April 1813.
    • Durgabai Maharaj (female -Regent)...........17 Feb 1773 - 18 Jul 1779 d. 1779
    • She was the sixth wife of Shambhuji. She was known as Rani Shrimant Durgabai Raje Saheb, from the Mohite family.
  • Shambhuji III "Appa Sahib" S/o Shivaji II........24 Apr 1813 - 02 Jul 1821 d. 1821
  • He was born on 08 March 1801 from Shivaji's fifth wife, Rani Shrimant Sundrabai Raje Saheb (daughter of Ratnojirao Khanvilkar). Shambhuji III sided with the British Government in a war with the Peshwa in 1817, for which he was rewarded with the restoration of the two districts of Chikori and Manoli. He lost in his war with the Nipanikar. He married four time and had a son. Shambhuji III was murdered on 16 July 1821 at Bhawani Mandap Palace.
  • Shivaji III S/o Shambhuji III....................02 Jul 1821 - 03 Jan 1822 d. 1822
  • He was known as Shrimant Shivaji Rao [Balasaheb] Bhonsle, born in 1816 and died of smallpox in 1822, before he succeed as a ruler.
    • Shahaji I "Baba Sahib" (Regent).............02 Jul 1821 - 03 Jan 1822 d. 1838
  • Shahaji I "Baba Sahib" (continued)...............03 Jan 1822 - 29 Nov 1838
  • He was born on 22 January 1802 and proved to be a profligate and oppressive ruler. The British Government was forced to move against him three times between 1822 and 1829. He signed a Treaty in 1826, agreeing to seek the advice of Government in all matters dealing with the public peace. Further treaties (1827 and 1829) greatly reduced his powers. He married eight times and had two sons and two daughters. He died 29 November 1838.
  • Shivaji IV S/o Shahaji I.........................29 Nov 1838 - 03 Aug 1866 d. 1866
  • He was born 26 December 1830 as son from fourth wife of Shahaji I, Rani Shrimant Anandibai Raje Saheb [Tarabai], daughter of Jyotirao Patankar. During Shivaji IV reign, a rebellion occurred, necessitating the direct administration by the Government, which was eventually turned over to the Raja in 1862, who was forced to sign a treaty, agreeing to guidance by the Government in all important matters. He married Rani Shrimant Ahilyabai Raje Saheb of Baroda, adopted his nephew. He died on 03 August 1866.
  • His younger brother, Shrimant Shahu [Chimna Sahib] Bhonsle (by Narmadabai), born 08 January 1831, was accused of taking part in the 1857 revolt in Kolhapur city. He was exiled to Karachi and married Shrimant Sakwarbai Raje Saheb. His wife committed suicide on 02 April 1858 while he died in 1869 on Manora island at Karachi.
    • Rani Saibai II (female - Regent)............29 Nov 1838 - 1845 d. 1861
    • She was the third wife of Shambhuji III, known as Rani Shrimant Saibai Raje Saheb, daughter of Narayanrao Shirke.
  • Rajaram I Nagaji Rao S/o Ramchandrarao Patankar..04 Aug 1866 - 30 Nov 1870 d. 1870
  • He was born on 13 April 1850 as Nagojirao Patankar. He was the son of Ramchandrarao Patankar and Au Bai Bhonsle (first child and elder daughter of Shahji I). He married firstly to Rani Tarabai Sahib (died 1874) and then to Rani Sakwarbai Sahib. He died on 30 November 1870 in Florence, Italy.
    • Rani Tarabai Bhonsle (female - Regent)......30 Nov 1870 - 12 Oct 1871 d. 1874
    • She was fthe irst wife of Rajaram I Nagaji Rao.
  • Shivaji V Chhatrapati Narayana Rao...............12 Oct 1871 - 25 Dec 1883 d. 1883
  • He was adopted by Rani Tarabai, born 05 April 1863 as Shrimant Narayanrao Bhonsle, son of Dinkarrao Bhonsle of the Khanwatkar branch. He was installed on the gadi in October 1871. A Council of four members were appointed to the administration of the state in 1882 after the Raja began to show symptoms of mental illness in 1879. He married Rani Shrimant Anandibai Raje Saheb [Tarabai] (she adopted Yeshwantrao Ghatge of Kagal as successor), daughter of Jyotirao Patankar. Shivaji V died on 25 December 1883 at Ahmednagar. He was known from 01 Jan 1877 as Sir Shivaji V Chhatrapati Narayana Rao. He personal style himself as Maharaja.
    • Jaisinhrao Ghatge (1st time Regent).........13 Mar 1882 - 25 Dec 1883 d. 1886
    • He was the father of Shahaji II.
    • Rani Anandbai Sahib (female -Regent)........25 Dec 1883 - 17 Mar 1884
  • Shahaji II Chhatrapati Jashwant Rao "Baba Sahib".17 Mar 1884 - 23 May 1900 d. 1922
  • He was born on 26 June 1874 as Meherban Shrimant Yeshwantrao Jaisinhrao Ghatge, son of Meherban Shrimant Jaisinhrao Narayanrao [Aba Sahib] Ghatge Sarjerao Vajarat-ma-ab, 4th Chief of Kagal-Senior. He was adopted to Kolhapur and succeeded to the gadi as a minor on 17 March 1884. He was granted full ruling powers on 02 April 1894. He was granted the title of Maharaja as a Hereditary distinction on 23 May 1900 . He was made a G.C.S.I. in 1895 and a G.C.V.O. on 01 January 1902, LL.D. (Hon.) on 10 June 1902, Hon. Member of the Royal Agricultural Society; granted a personal salute of 21 guns on 01 January 1909, founded the Shahu Vedic School in 1920, made a G.C.I.E. on 12 December 1911 at the Delhi Durbar. He married on 01 April 1891 to HH Maharani Lakshmi Bai Saheb (born January 1880), daughter of Meherban Gunajirao Khanvilkar of Baroda. He was known from 01 Jan 1895 as Sir Shahaji II Chhatrapati Jashwant Rao. He died on 06 May 1922 at Bombay. Shahaji II had two sons and two daughters. His first child and daughter, HH Maharani Radhabai Akka Sahib Maharaj Bhonsle (born 10 March 1894), married on 21 March 1908 to HH Maharajah Sir Tukoji III Rao Puar, 6th Maharaja of Dewas Senior Branch.
    • Jaisinhrao Ghatge (2nd time Regent).........17 Mar 1884 - 20 Mar 1885
  • Maharajas
  • Sir Shahaji II Chhatrapati Jashwant Rao "Baba Sahib"...23 May 1900 - 06 May 1922
  • Rajaram II Chhatrapati S/o Shahaji II............06 May 1922 - 26 Nov 1940 d. 1940
  • He was born on 31 July 1897 and G.C.I.E. [known from 03 Jun 1924 as Sir Rajaram II Chhatrapati]. He was educated locally and in England under the guardianship of Rev. Dr. and Mrs. Irwin and at the Ewing Agricultural College at Allahabad. He took a keen interest in the administration of the state and during his rule, he introduced many reforms and developed the commercial and industrial resources of his state. He married firstly in 1918, HH Maharani Shrimati Indumati Devi Tarabai Sahib, daughter of Yuvaraj Fatehsinghrao Gaekwad of Baroda and his wife, Yuvarani Padmavati Bai Saheba. Rajaram II married secondly in 1925 to HH Maharani Shrimati Vijayamalabai Sahib (died 14 July 1993), daughter of Meherban Shrimant Atmaramrao Mohite of Tanjore. Rajaram II died on 26 November 1940. His only child and daughter, Maharajkumari Padma Raje (born 05 October 1940), married in February 1959 to Sardar Raghojirao Kadam Bande of Torkhed and had two sons.
    (Sardar Harshvardhan Kadam Bande and Sardar Rajvardhan Kadam Bande). She died on 22 March 1997.
  • Great Britain.............................................1940 - 1942
    • Tarabai Sahib Chhatrapati (female - regent)...13 Jul 1942 - 18 Nov 1942
  • Shivaji VI Chhatrapati.............................18 Nov 1942 - 28 Sep 1946
  • He was born on 22 November 1941 as Pratapsinh, second son of Shrimant Nana Sahib Shankarrao Bhonsle Charvekar of the Khanwatkar branch. He died on 28 September 1946.
    • Tarabai Sahib Chhatrapati (female - regent)...22 Nov 1942 - 31 Mar 1947
  • Sir Shahaji III Chhatrapati........................31 Mar 1947 - 01 Mar 1949
  • He was Maharaja Vikramasimha Rao Puar of Dewas [Senior Branch] from 1937-1947. He became ceremonial Maharaja of Kolhapur 1947-1983 (adopted to Kolhapur on 31 March 1947) as HH Sir Maharajah Shahaji II Chhatrapati. He died on 09 May 1983. His elder son, HH Maharaja Powar Krishnaji III Rao Puar became the 8th Maharaja of Dewas Senior Branch.
  • Pretenders of Kolhapur
  • Sir Shahaji III Chhatrapati (continued)............01 Mar 1949 - 09 May 1983
  • Shahu II S/o Rajaramsinhrao........................09 May 1983 - date
  • Shahu II (born 07 January 1948) of the Bhonsle dynasty of the titluar Marathas. He became the ceremonial Maharaja of Kolhapur in 1983. He is the grandson of Shahaji III. He is the son of Rajaramsinhrao Laxmanrao Bhonsle of Nagpur and Akhand Soubhagyavati Shalinirajebai (eldest daughter of Shahaji III). He graduated in arts in 1967 from the Indo-Christian College in Bangalore. He married on 09 March 1970 to HH Maharani Yadnaseni Raje Saheb, daughter of Sardar Mangulkar of Belgaum. Shahu II had two sons as below:
    • Yuvraj Shrimant Sambhaji Raje Chhatrapati Maharaj Sahib (born 11 February 1971), married to Yuvrani Sanyogeeta Raje Saheb of Dhamtari, and have only one son: Shrimant Shahajiraje Sambhajiraje Bhonsle.
    • Maharajkumar Shrimant Malojiraje Bhonsle (born 1974), graduate in Political Science. He married Shrimant Dhawalshri Raje Saheb, daughter of Dr. Digvijay Khanvilkar, MLA from Kolhapur and Rajalaxmi Raje Saheb. He has two children: Shrimant Yashasviniraje Bhonsle (daughter born in 2001) and Shrimant Yashraj Malojiraje Bhonsle (son born in 2005).
Nagpur - A Marathan state within central India.
  • BHONSLE (title: Maharaja Chhatrapati)
  • Raghuji I.................................................1734 - 14 Feb 1755 d. 1755
  • He was bold and decisive in action, twice his armies invaded Bengal, and he obtained the cession of Cuttack. In addition, Chanda, Chhattisgarh and Sambalpur were added to his dominions between 1745 and 1755. He got married and had four sons. He died on 14th February 1755 at Nagpur.
  • Janoji S/o Raghuji I...............................14 Feb 1755 - 21 May 1773 d. 1773
  • He took part in the wars between the Peshwa and the Nizam of Hyderabad. After he had in turn betrayed both of them, they united against him and sacked and burnt Nagpur in 1765. He married Maharani Darya Bai, and had adoptive son. He died on 21 May 1773.
  • Mudhoji I Raghunath Rao S/o Raghuji I (Regent).....21 May 1773 - 19 May 1788 d. 1788
  • He was also known as Senadhurandhar and fought for the succession with his brother: Sabhaji. Sabhaji died in the battlefield of Panchgaon on 26 January 1775. He succeeded to the regency on behalf of his infant son Raghuji II who was Janoji's adopted heir. In 1785 Mandla and the upper Narmada valley were added to the Nagpur dominions by treaty with the Peshwa. He married and had four sons. He died on 19 May 1788 at Nagpur.
  • (title: Maharaja Sena Sahib Subah)
  • Raghuji II S/o Mudhoji I...........................19 May 1775 - 22 Mar 1816 d. 1816
  • He was born in 1760. Became known as Sena Sahib Subha around 1775. His predecessor had courted the favor of the British East India Company, and this policy was continued for some time by Raghuji II, who acquired Hoshangabad and the lower Narmada valley between 1796 and 1798. In 1803 he united with Daulatrao Scindia of Gwalior against the British, but the two leaders were decisively defeated at the battles of Assaye and Argaon. By the Treaty of Deogaon of that year, Raghuji ceded Cuttack, southern Berar, and Sambalpur to the British, although Sambalpur was not relinquished until 1806. He married (amongst others), Maharani Baka Bai (died 07 September 1858 at Nagpur at the age of 77 and received a pension of 120,000 Rupees). He had two sons and one daughter. He died on 22 March 1816.
  • Parsoji "Bala Sahib Parsharam" S/o Raghuji II......22 Mar 1816 - 02 Feb 1817 d. 1817
  • He was born in 1778. He was deposed and murdered by Mudhoji II on 02 February 1817. Parsoji's younger brother Maharajkumar Dharmaji Bhonsle was murdered earlier on 05 May 1816.
  • Mudhoji II "Appa Sahib" S/o Vyankoji...............02 Feb 1817 - 15 Mar 1818 d. 1840
  • He was born in 1796. and son of Vyankoji Bhonsle [Manya Bapu] who died in 1811 at Kasi. Vyankoji was the second son of Mudhoji I. In 1817, on the outbreak of war between the British and the Peshwa, Appa Sahib threw off his cloak of friendship, and accepted an embassy and title from the Peshwa. His troops attacked the British and were defeated in the action at Sitabaldi and second time near Nagpur city. As a result of these battles, the remaining portion of Berar and the territories in the Narmada valley were ceded to the British. Appa Sahib was reinstated to the throne, but shortly afterwards was discovered to be again conspiring and was deposed and moved to Allahabad in custody. On the way, however, he bribed his guards and escaped, first to the Mahadeo Hills and subsequently to the Punjab. He married firstly to Maharani Savitri Bai (received a pension of 10,000 Rupees) and secondly to Maharani Uma Bai. He died in 1840 in Jodhpur.
  • Raghuji III "Bapu Sahib"...........................26 Jun 1818 - 11 Dec 1853 d. 1853
  • He was born in 1806 (or 1808) to Maharajkumari Banu Bai, daughter of Raghuji II. He succeeded to the throne on 26 June 1818 and was entrusted with the administration of the state in 1826 upon attaining his majority. Due to his young age, the territories were administered by the resident from 1818 to 1830. He was allowed to assume ruling powers in 1830. He married firstly to Maharani Annapurna Bai (received a pension of 50,000Rs) and married secondly to Maharani Dariya Bai (sister of Daji Sahib Sirke, died 1907, received a pension of 25,000Rs). He died on 11 December 1853. The state lapsed with his death (annexed by the British under the Doctrine of Lapse due to failure of Heirs).
  • To Great Britain thereafter...
  • Pretenders of Nagpur (title: Raja Bahadur of Devur or Deor)
  • The former kingdom was administered as Nagpur Province, under a commissioner appointed by the Governor-General of India, until the formation of the Central Provinces in 1861. During the Revolt of 1857 a scheme for an uprising was formed by a regiment of irregular cavalry in conjunction with the disaffected Muslims of the city, but was frustrated by the prompt action of the civil authorities, supported by Madras troops from Kamptee. Some of the native officers and two of the leading Muslims of the city were hanged from the ramparts of the fort, and the disturbances ended. The aged princess Baka Bai (died 07 September 1858), widow of Raghuji II (ruled 1775-1816), used all her influence in support of the British, and by her example kept the Maratha districts loyal.
  • Janoji II Yashwantrao S/o Nana Ahirarao............11 Dec 1853 - 05 Dec 1881
  • He was the son of Nana Ahirarao (a nephew of Raghuji III). He was adopted by Maharani Dariya Bai (second wife of Raghuji III) in 1855. He became known as Raja Bahadur of Devur or Deor in 1861. He was granted a pension of 120,000 Rupees (subject to revision after his death). His villages were taken under management in 1873 until a debt of five and a half lakhs was repaid. He married and had two sons and three daughters. He died on 05 December 1881.
  • Raghuji Deo S/o Janoji II...........................05 Dec 1881 - ?
  • He was born on 07 November 1872. The family properties were divided between the two brothers in 1900. He got married and had two sons. He second son's name was Shrimant Kumar Jaisingh Raje Sahib.
  • unknown rulers.
  • British Residents in Nagpur
  • Henry Thomas Colebrooke............................18 Mar 1799 - 19 May 1801 d. 1837
  • Vacant: 19 May 1801 - 21 Dec 1803.
  • Montstuart Elphinstone.............................21 Dec 1803 - 1808 d. 1859
  • Richard Jenkins...........................................1808 - 29 Dec 1826 d. 1853
  • Hamilton (acting)..................................29 Dec 1826 - 12 Apr 1827
  • Francis Boyle Shannon Wilder.......................12 Apr 1827 - 19 Feb 1830 d. 1849
  • Henry Sullivan Graeme.....................................1830 - 1833 d. 1850
  • Gordon (acting)...........................................1833 - 1834
  • John Briggs........................................31 May 1834 - 1835 d. 1875
  • Richard Cavendish.........................................1835 - 13 Nov 1839 d. 1876
  • Thomas Wilkinson...................................13 Nov 1839 - 12 Sep 1844
  • Alexander Spiers...................................01 Dec 1844 - 1847
  • Ramsay................................................Jan 1847 - 12 Mar 1849
  • Davidson...........................................12 Mar 1849 - Aug 1850
  • Charles Grenville Mansel..............................Nov 1850 - 13 Mar 1854 d. 1886
Bhonsle of Nagpur coinage:

KM#349 Rupee. Year: ND - 5x [ca. 1825-1853]. Weight: 10.86g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 20.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Katak (Cuttack). Obverse: Sikka Mubarak Badshah Ghazi Ahmed Shah Bahadur. [Auspicious coin of Emperor Ahmed Shah the strong, fighter of infidels (Ghazi)] / ND. Reverse: Zarb Katak (5x) julus maimanat manus (Struck at Katak in the year 5x of the accession associated with tranquil prosperity). Without mint marks. My coin is double struck on reverse side.
Mintage: N/A. Pseudo Regnal years: AH-//52, AH-//57 and AH-//512. Ruler: Anonymous Ruler (Perhaps: Raghoji III) citing Mughal Emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur S/o Mohammed Shah (1748-1754). Note: Common.

Note: Cuttack is the former capital and the second largest city in the eastern Indian state of Odisha. It is also the headquarters of the Cuttack district. The name of the city is an anglicised form of Katak which literally means The Fort, a reference to the ancient Barabati Fort around which the city initially developed. Cuttack is also known as the Millennium City as well as the Silver City due to its history of 1000 years and famous silver filigree works.

Tanjore (Thanjavur)
A city and district in far southern India, about 50 miles (80 km.) west of the French enclave and port of Karaikal. A Maratha state in the 17th and 18th centuries.
  • Chola Empire (A Chola capital 9th - 11th century).......c. 846 - 1279
  • Mughal Empire.............................................1279 - 1334
  • Madurai...................................................1334 - 1378
  • Vijayanagar...............................................1378 - 1549
  • Sevappa...................................................1549 - 1572
  • Achyutappa................................................1572 - 1614
  • Raghunatha................................................1614 - ?
  • Vijaya Raghava.............................................. ? - 1673
  • BHONSLE (Maratha rulers in Tamil Naidu) - title: Rajas
  • Within French sphere of influence c. 1680 - 1763.
  • Venkaji S/o Shahaji.......................................1674 - 1684
  • He was born in 1630, son of Raja Saheb Shahaji Bhonsle of Pune. He married two wives and had nine concubines, He had three sons and died in 1684.
  • Shahji S/o Venkaji....................................Jan 1685 - 1712 d. 1712
  • He died in 1712 at the aged of 40 years. Raja Shahuji Rao Bhonsle is known to be his putative son.
  • Sarabhoji I (Sarfoji I) S/o Venkaji.......................1712 - 1729 d. 1729
  • He married three wives. He died in 1728 at aged of 53 years.
  • Tukoji (Thulaja I) S/o Venkaji............................1729 - 1736 d. 1736
  • He married five wives and had six concubines. He died in 1736 aged 59 years. He had three sons: Raja Venkoji II Baba Saheb Bhonsle [aka Ekoji], Raja Pratap Rao Bhonsle (by Rani Annapurnabai) and Shrimant Sayaji Bhonsle.
  • Venkoji II (Baba Sahib) S/o Tukoji........................1736 - 1737 d. 1737
  • He was born in 1696. Got married including Rani Sujana Bai and had two sons: Raja Shahuji Rao Bhonsle and Raja Pratap Rao Bhonsle. He died in 1737.
  • Pratap S/o Venkoji II (1st time)..........................1737 - 1740 d. 1763
    • Rani Sujana Bai (female -Regent).....................1737 - 1738
  • Shahuji [Kattu Raje] S/o Venkoji II (pretender)...........1740 - 1741 d. 1741
  • Pratap S/o Venkoji II (2nd time)..........................1741 - 16 Dec 1763
  • He got married to five wives (3rd and 5th wives committed sati) and had seven concubines. He had two sons: Raja Tuljaji Rao Bhonsle while Raja Amir Rao Bhonsle was from a concubine.
  • Within British sphere of influence 1763 - 1855.
  • Tuljaji S/o Pratap.................................16 Dec 1763 - 1787 d. 1787
  • He was British prisoner: 16 Sep 1773 - 11 Apr 1776. He got married five wives (two committed sati), and had adoptive son: HH Raja Sarfoji Rao Bhonsle II. He died in 1787 aged 49 years.
  • Sarabhoji II [Sarfoji II] (1st time)...............23 Jan 1787 - 1793 d. 1832
  • He was born 1773 and was adopted son of Raja Tuljaji Rao Bhonsle. He was allowed to assume the title of Highness in 1811 by the Board of Commissioners for the Affairs of India. He got married to three wives and had 24 concubines, including Rani Avu Bai Saheba (died 21st June 1864). He had a son: HH Raja Shivaji Rao Bhonsle (by Rani Avu Bai) and a daughter. He died on 08 March 1832.
    • Amir [Amar Singh] S/o Pratap (Regent).........23 Jan 1787 - 1793 d. 1802
  • Amir [Amar Singh] S/o Pratap (took control)...............1793 - 29 Jun 1798
  • He got married and had a son Shrimant Prataprao Amirrao Bhonsle (got married in 1812).
  • Sarabhoji II [Sarfoji II] (2nd time)...............29 Jun 1798 - 08 Mar 1832
  • Shivaji S/o Sarabhoji II...........................08 Mar 1832 - 30 Oct 1855 d. 1855
  • He married twenty wives, including (a), HH Rani Anasamba Bai Sahiba (died after 1892), married (b), HH Rani Chimamba Bai Sahiba (died after 1892), married (c), HH Rani Gauramba Bai Sahiba (died after 1892), married (d), HH Rani Jaiani Bai Sahiba (died after 1892), married (e), HH Rani Kamakshi Bai Sahiba (died after 1892), married (f), HH Rani Rama Kumaramba Bai Sahiba (died after February 1909), married (g), HH Rani Thipamba Bai Sahiba (died after 1892), married (h), HH Rani Umamba Bai Sahiba (died after 1892), married (i), HH Rani Kamatchi Ammah (his niece, daughter's daughter of Sarabhoji II, she died after 1892), married (j), HH Rani Jeejamba Bai (died after February 1909). He only fathered two daughters, as well as six natural sons. He was followed as Raja of Tanjore by an adopted son, who is ancestor of the later Raja's of Tanjore, though the state lapsed to the East India Company, however his private property was dispersed to the rightful heirs. He died on 30 October 1855. His daughter were:
    • Rajkumari Rajesa Bai (by Rani Sydamba Bai and married Sakharam Rao Saheb Mohite. She died on 26 December 1856).
    • Rajkumari Mohana Mukta Bai Amani Raje Sahiba [by Rani Sydamba Bai, born about 1845, she received a pension of Rs3,000 p.m., a personal salute of 13 guns and in 1878, she was appointed a member of the Imperial Order of the Crown of India; married February 1860, Raja Sakharam Rao Saheb Mohite, and had issue, three children, as well as an adoptive son (Shambhu Singh, died in 1891). She died 31st January 1885].
  • Great Britain directly.............................30 Oct 1855 - 15 Aug 1947
  • India..............................................15 Aug 1947 - date
  • Pretenders
  • HH Raja Sarfoji Rao III
  • HH Shrimant Raja Sri Pratap Sinha Raje S/o Sarfoji III.......? - 1969
  • He was born in 1889. He was educated in English and Tamil by private tutors, as well as horse riding and gymnastics. He became proficient in Veena and Carnatic music and became a great patron of music performances in his Sadar Mahal Palace. He was also a philanthropist, donating much of his private properties to just causes; he also served as the main donor and a life member of the Saraswathi Mahal library, donating old books and modi records to the library. He got married to HH Rani Saheb Sulochana Raje Bhonsle, daughter of Poona Anand Raje Mahadik of Tarla, and had two sons and two daughters. He died 1969. His two sons were:
    • Yuvaraj Shrimant Tulajendra Raje Bhonsle
    • Rajkumar Maloji Raje Bhonsle
  • Raja Babaji Rao Bhonsle Chattrapatti
  • He was born in 1969. He has a degree in Engineering, underwent training in preservation methods at the Madras Museum, hereditary trustee of 88 temples and attended the World Marathi Conference. He got married in 1997 to Rani Shrimant Gayatri Raje Ghorpade, daughter of Raja Shrimant Murarirao Yeshwantrao Ghorpade of Sandur, and his wife, Rani Vasundhara Raje Gaekwad. He has two daughters.
  • British Residents in Tanjore
  • John Sullivan.............................................1781 - 1785 d. 1839
  • John Hudleston............................................1785 - 1787
  • Alexander Macleod (1st time)..............................1787 - Oct 1789
  • George Andrew Ram.........................................1789 - 1792
  • Alexander Macleod (2nd time).............................1792? - 1797
  • Alexander Grant...........................................1797 - 1798
  • Benjamin Torin............................................1798 - 1803
  • William Blackburne........................................1803 - 03 Mar 1823 d. 1839
  • William Hardy......................................04 Mar 1823 - 21 Aug 1824
  • John Fyfe..........................................22 Aug 1824 - 09 Nov 1830
  • W. Tweedie (acting)................................10 Nov 1830 - 31 Dec 1830
  • W. Hudlestone......................................01 Jan 1831 - 31 Mar 1831
  • J. Blackurne.......................................01 Apr 1831 - 16 Aug 1832
  • Archibald Douglas (1st time).......................17 Aug 1832 - 18 Oct 1834
  • T. Macleane (1st time).............................19 Oct 1834 - 20 Jul 1837
  • C.M. Macleane (acting).............................21 Jul 1837 - 20 Oct 1837
  • T. Macleane (2nd time).............................21 Oct 1837 - 02 Jul 1839
  • W. Lockhart (1st time -acting).....................03 Jul 1839 - 23 Sep 1839
  • T. Macleane (3rd time).............................24 Sep 1839 - 14 Oct 1839
  • W. Lockhart (2nd time -acting).....................15 Oct 1839 - 13 Nov 1839
  • Archibald Douglas (2nd time).......................14 Nov 1839 - 03 Apr 1840
  • Halpin.............................................04 Apr 1840 - 06 Jul 1840
  • Archibald Douglas (3rd time).......................07 Jul 1840 - 20 Mar 1841
  • Selby..............................................21 Mar 1841 - 14 Apr 1841
  • W.H. Bayley........................................15 Apr 1841 - Dec 1841
Early Indian coins:

British India coins:

Coins of Indian Princely States and other colonies:

Countries / Territories
Chiefa Coins