Qu'aiti Sultanate of Shihr and Mukalla
 

 

 

Qu'aiti (Arabic: القعيطي‎‎ al-Qu‘ayṭī), officially the Qu'aiti State in Hadhramaut (Arabic: الدولة القعيطية الحضرمية‎‎) or the Qu'aiti Sultanate of Shihr and Mukalla (Arabic: سلطنة الشحر والمكلاا‎‎ al-Salṭanah al-Qu‘ayṭīyah fī ash-Shiḥr wal-Mukallā), was a sultanate in the Hadhramaut region of the southern Arabian Peninsula, in what is now Yemen. It was the third largest kingdom in Arabia after Saudi Arabia and Oman. It was divided into six provinces including Mukalla, Ash Shihr, Shibam, Du'an, the Western Province and Hajr. Capital: Mukalla.

Sons of Umar bin Awadh al Qu'aiti, who became a jemadar in the forces of the Nizam of Hyderabad State (now in India), first took the town of Shibam from the rival Kathiris in 1858. They later conquered Ash Shihr in 1866 and Mukalla in 1881, largely replacing the Kathiris to control most of the Hadhramaut coast on the Gulf of Aden. They entered into treaty relations with the British in 1888 and created a unified sultanate in 1902 that would become a part of the Aden Protectorate. As Great Britain planned for the eventual independence of South Arabia in the 1960s, Qu’aiti declined to join the British-sponsored Federation of South Arabia but remained under British protection as part of the Protectorate of South Arabia. Despite promises of a UN referendum to assist in determining the future of the Qu'aiti state in South Arabia on 17 September 1967, Communist forces overran the kingdom and, in November of that year, the Qu’aiti State was integrated forcibly without a referendum into Communist South Yemen. South Yemen united with North Yemen in 1990, again without a referendum, to become part of the Republic of Yemen.
 
        Nov 1866 - May 1867     al-Shihr occupied by Al-Kathiri.
                   10 Nov 1881  al-Shihr and al-Mukalla states joined.
                   1888         al-Shihr and al-Mukalla a British protectorates.
                   1902         Sultanate of al-Shihr and al-Mukalla
                                 (Saltanat al-Shihr wa al-Mukalla al-Qu`aytiyya).
                   17 Sep 1967  Sultanate abolished.
 

Map of the Federation of South Arabia.
 
 
States before merging into Qu'aiti Sultanate of Shihr and Mukalla.
 
  • ash-Shihr (title Wali)
  • Sultan Ali bin Umar al-Qu'aiti
  • Sultan Awadh bin Ali al-Qu'aiti
  • Sultan Abdallah bin Awadh al-Qu'aiti
  • Sultan Awadh bin Abdallah al-Qu'aiti
  • Sultan Umar bin Awadh al-Qu'aiti..........................? - 1865
  • Sultan of Shihr and Mukalla, born at Lahroom, Shibam, married three wives and had children. He died 27th June 1865 in Hyderabad, India.
  • (title Hakim, Jama`dar)
  • occupied by Al-Kathiri.............................Nov 1866 - May 1867
  • `Abd Allah ibn `Umar ibn `Awad al-Qu'aiti..............1867 - 10 Nov 1881 with...
  • `Awad ibn `Umar ibn `Awad al-Qu'aiti...................1867 - 10 Nov 1881
  • merged with Mukalla to form Quaiti Sultanate of Shihr and Mukalla.
 
 
  • al-KASADI - Naqibate of al-Mukalla (title Naqib)
  • Ahmad ibn Salim al-Kasadi..............................1707 - 1740
  • Salim ibn Ahmad al-Kasadi..............................1740 - 1770
  • Salih ibn Salim al-Kasadi..............................1770 - 1800
  • `Abd al-Rabb ibn Salih al-Kasadi.......................1800 - Aug 1842
  • Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Habib al-Kasadi...............Aug 1842 - 26 Apr 1851
  • Salih ibn Muhammad al-Kasadi...........................1851 - 11 May 1873
  • `Umar ibn Salih al-Kasadi..............................1873 - 10 Nov 1881
  • merged with ash-Shihr to form Quaiti Sultanate of Shihr and Mukalla.

KM#52 Khumsi. Year: AH 1276 (1860). Weight: 4.95 g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 22.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "المكلا" (al-Mukalla) written in Arabic at the top. "١٢٧٦ سنة" (Year AH 1276) written in Arabic at the bottom. Reverse: "النقيب صلاح" (Captain Salih) written in Arabic within center circle. Wreath around the center circle. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type. Ruler: Salih ibn Muhammad al-Kasadi (1851-1873).

Note: A coin collector from Yemen, Ali Salim indicated that this coin is fake as the word "صلاح" (Saleh) on the above coin are separated. The original image of the coin can be seen at Numista: https://en.numista.com/catalogue/pieces89495.html. I am not sure if my coin is really a fake issue or another type, therefore I am investigating to find more solid evidence to clarify it.

 
 
  • State of Ghayl Ba Wazir (Ghayl Ba Wazir) (titles Hakim and Jama`dar)
  • `Abd Allah ibn `Umar ibn `Awad al-Qu`aiti.............1868 - 25 Nov 1888
  • He was also ruler of al-Shihr wa al-Mukalla.
  • Munassar ibn `Abd Allah al-Qu`aiti................Nov 1888 - 1900s with...
  • al-Husayn ibn `Abd Allah al-Qu`aiti...............Nov 1888 - 1900s
  • Incorporated into al-Shihr wa al-Mukalla in 1900s.
 
Munassar al-Dawla bin `Abd Allah al-Mustafa ibn Umar ibn Awad (at Shibam) coinage: AH 1307 - 1308 (1889-1890).
Jochen Renger established contact with Sultan Ghalib and thus confirmed the existence of authentic counterstamps. The statement is attributed to Ghalib bin 'Awadh Al-Qu'aiti, the last sultan of the Qu'aiti state in Hadhramawt.  According to Sultan Ghalib bin 'Awadh Al-Qu'aiti, Munassar bin Abdullah counterstruck Maria Theresa Thalers as well as Indian Annas and Rupees. The small counterstamp was used in 1888/1889, and the large counterstamp was used in the 1890s. The date of AH1307 was used on all counterstamps, indicating the year when Munassar obtained power of Shibam, the inner Hadhramout. Munassar counterstamped the coins to support his claim of power over his brother al-Husayn, who ruled the coastal areas (Shihr and Mukalla), and his uncle Awadh bin Umar al Qu'aiti, who ruled over the entire Al-Qu'aiti tribe and spent most of his time in Hyderabad (India). The 1863 opening of the Suez Canal triggered the local people to show their importance in the region. The coins were counterstamped in Hadhramout, explaining from the counterstamp's simplicity. The counterstamps coins on Maria Theresa Thaler are referred in Coin Catalogue as Hafner 109 and 110. Krause/Mishler lists the coins under Qa'iti and refer them as KM#35 and KM#36.
 

KM#1 Pie (1/12 Anna). Year: AH 1308 (1890). Weight: 2.00 g. Metal: Copper. Diameter: 12.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Coin. Mint: Calcutta. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: counterstamped: AH1307 on 1835 (b), AH1307 on 1835 (m) and AH1307 on 1848 (c).
Note: Yemen Eastern Aden Protectorate, Qu'aiti State, countermarked 1/12 Anna [host India KM#261 Pie dated 1833 - AH1248] on AH 1308 (1890), KM-1 but 10mm countermark dated 1308 instead of 1307 (undocumented variety). Provenance: Åke Lindén collection (Baldwin's Islamic Coin Auction 26, lot 883). Very rare type.

KM#35 Riyal. Year: AH 1307 (1889). Weight: 27.93 g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 40.00 mm. Edge: Decorative and lettering: "JUSTITIA ET CLEMENTIA" (meaning: Justice and Clemency). Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: 10 mm counterstamped: AH1307 on Maria Theresa Thaler restrike issue.

Note: countermarked silver Maria Theresa Thaler on AH 1307 (1889), KM-35, 10mm countermark. Provenance: Åke Lindén collection (Baldwin's Islamic Coin Auction 26, lot 883). Very rare type.

Counterstamp legend: "al-Dawla Munassar sanah 1307".

 

KM#36 Riyal. Year: AH 1307 (1890). Weight: 27.56 g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 40.00 mm. Edge: Decorative and lettering: "JUSTITIA ET CLEMENTIA" (meaning: Justice and Clemency). Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: 15 mm counterstamped: AH1307 on Maria Theresa Thaler restrike issue.

Note: countermarked silver Maria Theresa Thaler on AH 1307 (1889), KM-36, 15mm countermark. Provenance: Åke Lindén collection (Baldwin's Islamic Coin Auction 26, lot 883). Very rare type.

Counterstamp legend: "sanah 1307 Munassar al-Dawla bin `Abd Allah al-Mustafa".

 
 
  • Shabwa (Sultans - Al Burayk dynasty)
  • .... Al Burayk.........................................1752 - 1800
  • Naji` Al Burayk........................................1800 - 1830
  • `Ali ibn Naji` Al Burayk ..............................1842 - Nov 1866
  • occupied by Al Kathiri.............................Nov 1866 - May 1867
  • unknown rulers
  • Incorporated into Quaiti Sultanate of Shihr and Mukalla.......1900s
 
 
 
SHIHR & MUKALLA - A group of local states in east-central Yemen occupying much of the Hadramaut region; the main settlement is Mukalla, on the coast some 284 miles (457 km.) northeast of Aden city - Shihr is about 40 miles (64 km.) further east of Mukalla. The coastal region was acquired by the Qu'aiti clan in the third quarter of the 19th century, and much of the interior taken from the Kathirids. The Sultanate of ash-Shihr wa'l Mukalla was formed when the predecessor states of Shihr and Mukalla were united in 1881. It became a Sultanate in 1902.
  • ash-Shihr Wa´l Mukalla [Quaiti Sultanate of Shihr and Mukalla] (10 Nov 1881 - 17 Sep 1967)
    • ash-Shihr (1752 - 10 Nov 1881) - merged with Mukalla to form Quaiti Sultanate of Shihr and Mukalla.
    • al-Mukalla (1707 - 10 Nov 1881) - merged with Shihr to form as Quaiti Sultanate of Shihr and Mukalla.
    • Ghayl (1868 - 1900s) - Incorporated into Quaiti Sultanate of Shihr and Mukalla.
 
  • ash-Shihr wa´l Mukalla - (titles Hakim, Jama`dar)
  • `Abd Allah ibn `Umar ibn `Awad al-Qu`aiti........10 Nov 1881 - 25 Nov 1888 with...
  • He was ruler of Shihr 1866-1881 and Ghayl 1868-1881.
  • `Awad I ibn `Umar ibn `Awad al-Qu`aiti...........10 Nov 1881 - 1902
  • British Protectorate....................................1888 - 1967
    • Sultans (titles Sultan al-Shihr wa al-Mukalla al-Qu`ayti, Sultan Nawaz Jang)
    • `Awad I ibn `Umar ibn `Awad al-Qu`aiti (continued).1902 - Dec 1910
    • Sultan of Shihr and Mukalla 1902-1909, Jemadar of Shihr since 1866, Jemadar of Mukalla 1881-1902, he was granted the style of His Highness in 1902, married and had children. He died 1909 (December 1910?).
    • Ghalib I ibn `Awad al-Qu`aiti..................Dec 1910 - Jun 1922
    • `Umar ibn `Awad al-Qu`aiti.....................Jun 1922 - 06 Mar 1936
    • Salih ibn Ghalib al-Qu`aiti.................06 Mar 1936 - 27 May 1956
    • `Awad II ibn Salih al-Qu`aiti...............27 May 1956 - Aug 1966
    • Ghalib II ibn `Awad al-Qu`aiti.................Aug 1966 - 17 Sep 1967
    • HH Sultan Ghalib II bin Awadh Al-Qu'aiti, Sultan of Shihr and Mukalla 1966-1967 and Head of the Royal Family of Shihr and Mukalla since 17th September 1967. He was born on 07th January 1948 in London, deposed 17th September 1967, married 07th June 1975 with Sultana Rashid Ahmed, and has three below children. Sultan Ghalib holds an MA from the University of Oxford in Oriental Studies (Islamic History) and another in Arabian Studies from the University of Cambridge, both with honours. The Sultan graduated from Millfield School. He has been a Saudi resident since 1968, currently residing in Jeddah. He has working knowledge of seven languages including Arabic, English, French, German, Persian, Turkish and Urdu/Hindi, which supports his research of various historical periods and geographic regions. Sultan Ghalib is the author of The Holy Cities, The Pilgrimage and The World of Islam (2008).
      • Prince Saleh bin Ghalib Al-Qu'aiti, born 03rd February 1977 in London; graduated from the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst and Millfield School; married Princess Salwa Al-Huraibi of Yafa'a.
      • Princess Fatima bint Ghalib Al-Qu'aiti, born 26th July 1979 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; married Prince Shad Al-Sherif Pasha of The Hijaz and Turkey.
      • Princess Muzna bint Ghalib Al-Qu'aiti, born 28th December 1980 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; married Hisham Hafez of Medina, Saudi Arabia.
  • South Yemen......................................17 Sep 1967 - 22 May 1990
  • Yemen............................................22 May 1990 - date
 
`Awad I ibn `Umar Coinage: AH 1315-1318 (1897-1900).
 

KM#45 5 Khumsi (1/24 Riyal). Year: AH 1315 (1897). Weight: 8.35 g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 25.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "شبام" (Shibam) written in Arabic at the top. Date "١٣١٥" (1315) below it. Value "خمس" (five) written below the Date. "الشحر" (Al-Shihr) written clockwise at the right side. "ضرب" (Struck at) written in Arabic at the bottom. "المكلا" (Al-Mukalla) written at the right side anti-clock wise. Dotted circle around the legends. Wreath in circular form outside the dotted circle.
Reverse: "القعيطي" (Al-Qu'aiti) written at the top in the center. "عوض بن عمر" (Awad ibn Umar) written in the center line. "السلطان" (Al-Sultan) at the bottom line. "H. H. SULTAN NAWAZ JUNG" written in the top section and "+ BAHADOOR +" at the bottom section. Mintage: N/A. Years: One year type. Ruler: `Awad ibn `Umar ibn `Awad al-Qu`aiti (1888-1910).

Note: Several varieties exists. The legend on above coin looks like: "I I · I I · SULTAN NAHAZ JUHG R^H^>OOA"

KM#48 5 Khumsi (1/24 Riyal). Year: AH 1318 (1900). Weight: 6.43 g. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 25.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: N/A. Obverse: "ضرب مكلا" (Struck at Mukalla) written in Arabic at the top and Date "١٣١٨" (1318) below it. "حضرموت" (Hadhramaut) written in middle line. "خمسيه سكة" (Five coin)  written at the bottom. Wreath on both sides. Reverse: Toughra at the top and "عوض" (Awad) written below it. "دولة قعيطي" (The State of Qu'aiti) written at the bottom. Wreath on both sides. Mintage: N/A. Years: One year type. Ruler: `Awad ibn `Umar ibn `Awad al-Qu`aiti (1888-1910).

Note: Bronze and Copper type exist. Overstrikes on East India Co. 1/4 Annas also exist.

 
 
Early coins of Yemen dynasties:

Click below on earlier coinage of British India used in South of Yemen (Aden):

  • East India Company (inc. William IV and Victoria)16 Aug 1765 - 30 Sep 1858
  • Victoria.........................................01 Nov 1858 - 22 Jan 1901
  • Edward VII.......................................22 Jan 1901 - 06 May 1910
  • George V.........................................06 May 1910 - 20 Jan 1936
  • George VI........................................12 Dec 1936 - 15 Aug 1947

Rulers with Coins of Yemen states under British Protectorate:

Mutawakkilite Kingdom coins:

Rulers and Coins of Yemen 1962 to 1990 can be viewed by clicking the below links:

Rulers and Coins of "Republic of Yemen", 1990 to date can be viewed at:

 
 
 
 
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Chiefa Coins