Federation of South Arabia (1962-1967)
 

 
The Federation of South Arabia (Arabic: اتحاد الجنوب العربي‎‎ Ittiḥād al-Janūb al-‘Arabī) was an organization of states under British protection in what would become South Yemen. It was formed on 04 April 1962 from the 15 protected states of the Federation of Arab Emirates of the South. On 18 January 1963 it was merged with the Crown colony of Aden. In June 1964, the Upper Aulaqi Sultanate was added for a total of 17 states. A team was sent to the 1966 Commonwealth Games in Kingston, Jamaica. The Federation was abolished when it gained independence along with the Protectorate of South Arabia as the People's Republic of South Yemen on 30 November 1967. Capital: Aden.

In 1838, Sultan Muhsin bin Fadl of the nearby state of Lahej ceded 194 km² (75 sq. miles) including Aden to the British. On 19 January 1839, the British East India Company landed Royal Marines at Aden to occupy the territory and stop attacks by pirates against British shipping to India. It then became an important trading hub between British India and the Red Sea, and following the opening of the Suez canal in 1869, it became a coaling station for ships en route to India. Aden was ruled as part of British India until 1937, when the city of Aden became the Colony of Aden. The Aden hinterland and Hadhramaut to the east formed the remainder of what would become South Yemen and was not administered directly by Aden but were tied to Britain by treaties of protection with local rulers of traditional polities that, together, became known as the Aden Protectorate. Economic development was largely centered in Aden, and while the city flourished, the states of the Aden Protectorate stagnated.
In 1963, Aden and much of the Protectorate were joined to form the Federation of South Arabia with the remaining states that declined to join, mainly in Hadhramaut, forming the separate Protectorate of South Arabia. Both of these polities were still tied to Britain with promises of total independence in 1968. Two nationalist groups, the Front for the Liberation of Occupied South Yemen (FLOSY) and the National Liberation Front (NLF), began an armed struggle (Aden Emergency) on 14 October 1963 against British control and, with the temporary closure of the Suez Canal in 1967, the British began to withdraw. One faction, NLF, was invited to the Geneva Talks to sign the independence agreement with the British. Ironically, Britain, who during its occupation of Aden signed several treaties of protection with the local sheikhdoms and emirates of the Federation of South Arabia, excluded them in the talks and thus the agreement stated "...the handover of the territory of South Arabia to the (Yemeni) NLF...". Southern Yemen became independent as the People's Republic of Southern Yemen on 30 November 1967, and the National Liberation Front consolidated its control in the country.

 
 
        1506 - 1512         Socotra Island occupied by Portugal (Socotorá).
               1513         First recorded visit of the Portuguese to Aden.
 03 Aug 1538 - 1548         Aden part of the Ottoman Empire.
        1548 - 1551         Aden occupied by Portugal.
        1551 - 1635         Aden part of the Ottoman Empire.
 03 May 1799 - 01 Sep 1799  Perim Island occupied by the British.
               19 Jan 1839  British occupation of Aden.
                  Sep 1839  Subordinated to Bombay province of British India.
                      1857  Perim Island re-acquired, part of Aden colony.
                      1868  British purchase Little Aden.
                      1873  Aden protectorates acquired.
               09 Jun 1915  Kamaran Islands seized from the Ottoman Empire by U.K.
                             later subordinated, but not annexed, to Aden colony.
               24 Jul 1923  Turkey renounces claim to Kamaran by Treaty of Lausanne (but
                             future sovereignty of the island is not settled).
                      1932  Aden a separate province of British India.
               01 Apr 1937  British Aden colony and protectorates.
               11 Feb 1959  Federation of Arab Emirates of the South
                             - Lahj (from 5 Oct 1959)
                             - `Aqrabi (from Feb 1960)
                             - `Awdhali
                             - Lower `Awlaqi (from Feb 1960)
                             - Upper `Awlaqi Sheikhdom
                             - Bayhan
                             - Dali`
                             - Dathina (from Feb 1960)
                             - Fadli
                             - Lower Yafa`
                             - Wahidi (from 1 Apr 1962)
               04 Apr 1962  Federation of South Arabia
                             - Aden (from 18 Jan 1963)
                             - Lahj
                             - `Alawi (from 1965)
                             - `Aqrabi
                             - `Awdhali
                             - Lower `Awlaqi
                             - Upper `Awlaqi Sultanate (from Jun 1964)
                             - Upper `Awlaqi Sheikhdom
                             - Bayhan
                             - Dali`
                             - Fadli
                             - Hawshabi (from 30 Mar 1963)
                             - Sha`ib (from 30 Mar 1963)
                             - Lower Yafa`
                             - Maflahi (from 1965)
                             - Wahidi
               18 Jan 1963  Colony of Aden becomes State of Aden (part of Federation of
                             South Arabia).
               30 Nov 1967  Independence (People's Republic of South Yemen).
               30 Nov 1970  People's Democratic Republic of Yemen.
 06 Oct 1972 - 22 May 1990  Kamaran Islands Occupied by North Yemen (Sana).
               22 May 1990  Unification with Yemen (Sana) as Republic of Yemen.
 22 May 1994 - 07 Jul 1994  Former South Yemen in secession from Yemen as
                             Democratic Republic of Yemen.
 
 
  • British Commissioner in the Red Sea
  • John Murray................................03 May 1799 - Mar 1800
  • He stayed on Perim Island to 01 Sep 1799, then Aden.
  • Great Britain.....................................1839 - 1967
  • British Agents
  • Stafford Bettesworth Haines................19 Jan 1839 - Jun 1854
  • He served as commander to Sep 1839.
  • James Outram..................................Jun 1854 - Sep 1854
  • William Marcus Coghlan............................1854 - 1859
  • Resident
  • William Marcus Coghlan............................1859 - 1863
  • William Lockyer Merewether........................1863 - 1867
  • Edward Lechmere Russell...........................1867 - 1870
  • Charles William Tremenheere.......................1870 - 1872
  • John William Schneider............................1872 - 1878
  • Francis Adam Ellis Loch...........................1878 - 1882
  • James Blair.......................................1882 - 1885
  • Frederick Mercer Hunter (acting).........................1885
  • Adam George Forbes Hogg...........................1885 - 1890
  • John Jopp.........................................1890 - 1895
  • Charles William Henry Sealy (acting for Jopp).May 1894 - Jul 1894
  • Charles Alexander Cunningham (1st time)...........1895 - Feb 1898
  • Garratt O'Moore Creagh (1st time).............Feb 1898 - Dec 1898
  • Charles Alexander Cunningham (2nd time)...........1895 - 22 Jan 1899
  • Garratt O'Moore Creagh (2nd time)..........22 Jun 1899 - 30 Jun 1900
  • Herbert Edward Penton (acting).............30 Jun 1900 - 24 Feb 1901
  • Geore Hand More-Molyneux (acting).............Mar 1901 - 24 Jun 1901
  • Pelham James Maitland......................24 Jun 1901 - 1904
  • Harry Macan Mason.................................1904 - 1906
  • Ernest de Brath...................................1906 - 1910
  • James Alexander Bell..............................1910 - 1915
  • From 27 Nov 1911, Sir James Alexander Bell.
  • David George Levigne Shaw (acting)................1915 - 16 Jul 1915
  • George John Younghusband (acting)..........16 Jul 1915 - 11 Sep 1915
  • Charles Henry Uvedale Price................11 Sep 1915 - 1916
  • William Walton (acting)....................19 Feb 1916 - 1916
  • James Marshall Stewart (1st time)..........16 Jul 1916 - 1919
  • Lionel Nicholson Beatty (acting).........................1919
  • Walter Sinclair Delamain (acting)........................1919
  • James Maeshall Stewart (2nd time).................1919 - 1921
  • Thomas Edwin Scott................................1921 - 1925
  • John Henry Keith Stewart..........................1925 - 22 Apr 1928
  • George Stewart Symes.......................22 Apr 1928 - 07 Mar 1931
  • From 04 Jun 1928, Sir George Stewart Symes.
  • Bernard Rawdon Reilly......................07 Mar 1931 - 1932
  • Chief Commissioner
  • Bernard Rawdon Reilly.............................1932 - 01 Apr 1937
  • Governor
  • Sir Bernard Rawdon Reilly..................01 Apr 1937 - 24 Oct 1940
  • John Hathorn Reilly........................24 Oct 1940 - 01 Jan 1945
  • From 01 Jan 1941, Sir John Hathorn Hall
  • Reginald Stuart Champion...................01 Jan 1945 - 1950
  • From 01 Jan 1946, Sir Reginald Stuart Champion.
  • William Allmond Codrington Goode (acting).........1950 - Apr 1951
  • Sir Tom Hickinbotham..........................Apr 1951 - 13 Jul 1956
  • Sir William Henry Tucker Luce..............13 Jul 1956 - 23 Oct 1960
  • Sir Charles Hepburn Johnston...............23 Oct 1960 - 18 Jan 1963
  • High Commissioner
  • Sir Charles Hepburn Johnston...............18 Jan 1963 - 17 Jul 1963
  • Sir Gerald Kennedy Nicholas Trevaskis......17 Jul 1963 - 21 Dec 1964
  • Sir Richard Gordon Turnbull................21 Dec 1964 - 22 May 1967
  • Sir Humphrey Trevelyan.....................22 May 1967 - 30 Nov 1967
  • Republic of South Yemen....................30 Nov 1967 - 22 May 1990
  • Part of united Yemen (San'a)...............22 May 1990 - date
 
 
Dinar = 20 Dirhams = 1000 fils
Currency: The dinar (Arabic: دينار‎‎) was the currency of South Arabia and then South Yemen between 1965 and 1990. Code: YDD (ISO 4217). It was subdivided into 1000 fils (فلس). After Yemen's monetary unification on 1 July 1990, it was one of the two official currencies used in Yemen Republic until 11 June 1996.
The dinar was introduced in 1965 as the South Arabian Dinar, replacing the East African shilling at a rate of 1 dinar = 20 shillings, thus setting the dinar initially equal to the British pound. It was renamed the South Yemeni dinar after the Aden Protectorate became independent in 1967 as the South Yemen. The South Yemeni dinar was replaced by the rial following unification with North Yemen. The exchange rate was 1 dinar = 26 rial.
 
1964
In 1965, coins (dated 1964) were introduced for South Arabia in denominations of 1, 5, 25 and 50 fils. The 1 fils was struck in aluminum, the 5 fils in bronze and the higher two denominations in cupro-nickel. These were issued by the South Arabian Currency Authority.
 

KM#1 1 Fils. Year: 1964. Weight: 0.80 g [0.80 g]. Metal: Aluminum. Diameter: 20.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: British Royal Mint. Obverse: Dot at the top. "1 FILS" written at the top left side. "فلس واحد" (Fils One) written at the top right side. Crossed daggers in the center. Date written at the bottom.
Reverse: "الجنوب العربي" (South Arabia) written in Arabic at the top section. Small dot on each side. 8-sided star design in the center. "SOUTH ARABIA" written at the bottom section. Mintage: 10,000,000 + 10,500 (in Proof sets as KM#PS1 + N/A proof. Mintage Years: One year type.

KM#2 5 Fils. Year: 1964. Weight: 5.74 g [5.75 g]. Metal: Bronze. Diameter: 23.20 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: British Royal Mint. Obverse: Dot at the top. "5 FILS" written at the top left side. "٥" (5) and "فلوس" (Fils) written at the top right side. Crossed daggers in the center. Date written at the bottom.
Reverse: "الجنوب العربي" (South Arabia) written in Arabic at the top section. Small dot on each side. 8-sided star design in the center. "SOUTH ARABIA" written at the bottom section. Mintage: 10,000,000 + 10,500 (in Proof sets as KM#PS1 + N/A proof. Mintage Years: One year type.

KM#3 25 Fils. Year: 1964. Weight: 4.68 g [4.65 g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 20.20 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: British Royal Mint. Obverse: Dot at the top. "25 FILS" written at the top left side. "٢٥" (25) and "فلسا" (Fils) written at the top right side. Crossed daggers in the center. Date written at the bottom.
Reverse: "الجنوب العربي" (South Arabia) written in Arabic at the top section. Small dot on each side. 8-sided star design in the center. "SOUTH ARABIA" written at the bottom section. Mintage: 4,000,000 + 10,500 (in Proof sets as KM#PS1 + N/A proof. Mintage Years: One year type.

KM#4 50 Fils. Year: 1964. Weight: 9.23 g [9.20 g]. Metal: Copper-Nickel. Diameter: 27.70 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Medal. Mint: British Royal Mint. Obverse: "درهم واحد" (One Dirham) in Arabic written at the top. "50 FILS" written at the top left side. "٥٠" (50) and "فلسا" (Fils) written at the top right side. Dhow in the center. Date written at the bottom.
Reverse: "الجنوب العربي" (South Arabia) written in Arabic at the top section. Small dot on each side. 8-sided star design in the center. "SOUTH ARABIA" written at the bottom section. Mintage: 6,000,000 + 10,500 (in Proof sets as KM#PS1 + N/A proof. Mintage Years: One year type.
 
 
States of the Western Aden Protectorate
 
  • British Political Officers in Western Aden Protectorate (at Lahej)
  • Stewart Henry Perowne............................01 Apr 1937 - Aug 1938
  • Robert A. B. Hamilton (acting)..........................1938 - 1939?
  • Basil W. Seager.........................................1940 - 1951
    • John W.T. Allen (acting for Seager).......................1947
  • Sir Gerald Kennedy Nicholas Trevaskis (1st time)........1951 - 195
  • Robin Leonard Bidwell.................................c.1955 - c.1959
  • Sir Gerald Kennedy Nicholas Trevaskis (2nd time)........195. - 1963
  • Robin G. E. Young.......................................1963 - 12 Nov 1967

Map of Federation of South Arabia in Jan 1965.
 
States of the Western Aden Protectorate consists:
  • `Alawi (1839 - 28 Aug 1967)
  • `Aqrabi (1770 - 28 Aug 1967)
  • `Awdhali (c. 1750 - Sep 1967)
  • Lower `Awlaqi (1700s - 29 Nov 1967)
  • Upper `Awlaqi Sheikhdom (1700s - 28 Aug 1967)
  • Upper `Awlaqi Sultanate (1700s - 29 Nov 1967)
  • Bayhan [Beihan] (c.1750 - 28 Aug 1967)
  • Dali`[Dhala] (1700s - 17 Aug 1967)
  • Dathina (? - 14 Aug 1967)
  • Dubi (c. 1750 - 1967)
  • Fadli [Fadhli] (1600s - 29 Nov 1967)
  • Hadrami (1820 - 1967)
  • Hawshabi (c. 1730 - 29 Nov 1967)
  • Lahj [Lahej] (1728 - Aug 1967)
  • Maflahi (1850 - 1967)
  • Mawsata (1780 - 29 Nov 1967)
  • Sha`ib (1700s - Sep 1967)
  • Lower Yafa` (1681 - 28 Aug 1967)
  • Upper Yafa` (c. 1730 - 29 Nov 1967)
 
States of the Eastern Aden Protectorate
 
  • British Political Officers in Eastern Aden Protectorate (Resident Advisers at Mukalla)
  • William Harold Ingrams (1st time).......................1937 - 1940
  • George Andrew Joy.......................................1940 - 1942
  • William Harold Ingrams (2nd time).......................1942 - 1944
  • Vincent Goncalves Glenday...............................1944 - 1945
  • Charles Henry J. Sheppard...............................1945 - 1949
  • John Edmund Hugh Boustead...........................Oct 1949 - 1958
  • Alastair James McIntosh.................................1958 - 1959/60
  • Arthur F. Watts......................................1959/60 - 1963
  • Vincent Edward Frederick Eyre...........................1963 - 1966
    • P.S. Alfree (acting for Eyre).............................1964?
    • Michael Crouch (acting for Eyre)..........................1964
  • James Norrie Ellis......................................1966 - 1967

Map pf Protectorate of South Arabia in Jan 1965.
 
States of the Eastern Aden Protectorate consists:
  • Barhut (? - 1967)
  • al-Hawra (1800s - 1967)
  • al-`Irqa (1800s - 1967)
  • Mahra (1549 - 16 Oct 1967)
  • Qasm (? - 1967)
  • Say´un (Seiyun) (Hadramaut) (1400s - 02 Oct 1967)
    • Tarim (1880 - 1945) - Incorporated into Say´un in 1945.
    • al-Ghurfah (1920 - 1945) - Incorporated into Say´un in 1945.
  • ash-Shihr Wa´l Mukalla [Quaiti Sultanate of Shihr and Mukalla] (10 Nov 1881 - 17 Sep 1967)
    • ash-Shihr (1752 - 10 Nov 1881) - merged with Mukalla to form Quaiti Sultanate of Shihr and Mukalla.
    • al-Mukalla (1707 - 10 Nov 1881) - merged with Shihr to form as Quaiti Sultanate of Shihr and Mukalla.
    • Ghayl (1868 - 1900s) - Incorporated into Quaiti Sultanate of Shihr and Mukalla.
    • Shabwa (1752 - 1900s) - Incorporated into Quaiti Sultanate of Shihr and Mukalla.
  • Wahidi [Wahidi Sultanate of Ba´l Haf and `Azzan] (c. 1640 - 29 Nov 1967)
    • Wahidi Sultanate of Ba´l Haf (1600s - 04 May 1881)
    • Wahidi Sultanate of `Azzan (1830 - May 1881)
    • Wahidi Sultanate of Bi´r `Ali `Amaqin (1830 - 23 Oct 1962)
    • Wahidi Sultanate of Habban (1830 - 23 Oct 1962)
 
 
Early coins of Yemen dynasties:

Click below on earlier coinage of British India used in South of Yemen (Aden):

  • East India Company (inc. William IV and Victoria)16 Aug 1765 - 30 Sep 1858
  • Victoria.........................................01 Nov 1858 - 22 Jan 1901
  • Edward VII.......................................22 Jan 1901 - 06 May 1910
  • George V.........................................06 May 1910 - 20 Jan 1936
  • George VI........................................12 Dec 1936 - 15 Aug 1947

Rulers with Coins of Yemen states under British Protectorate:

Mutawakkilite Kingdom coins:

Rulers and Coins of Yemen 1962 to 1990 can be viewed by clicking the below links:

Rulers and Coins of "Republic of Yemen", 1990 to date can be viewed at:

 
 
 
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Chiefa Coins