Yemen
 

 
Yemen (Arabic: اليَمَن‎‎ al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhūrīyah al-Yamanīyah), is an Arab country in Western Asia, occupying South Arabia, the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula. Yemen is the second-largest country in the peninsula, occupying 527,970 km2 (203,850 sq mi). The coastline stretches for about 2,000 km (1,200 mi). It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea to the south, and Oman to the east-northeast. Although Yemen's constitutionally stated capital is the city of Sana'a, the city has been under rebel control since February 2015. Because of this, Yemen's capital has been temporarily relocated to the port city of Aden, on the southern coast. Yemen's territory includes more than 200 islands; the largest of these is Socotra. Capital: Sana'a
Yemen was the home of the Sabaeans (biblical Sheba), a trading state that flourished for over a thousand years and probably also included parts of modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea. In 275 AD, the region came under the rule of the later Jewish-influenced Himyarite Kingdom. Christianity arrived in the fourth century, whereas Judaism and local paganism were already established. Islam spread quickly in the seventh century and Yemenite troops were crucial in the expansion of the early Islamic conquests. Administration of Yemen has long been notoriously difficult. Several dynasties emerged from the ninth to 16th centuries, the Rasulid dynasty being the strongest and most prosperous. The country was divided between the Ottoman and British empires in the early twentieth century. The Zaydi Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen was established after World War I in North Yemen before the creation of the Yemen Arab Republic in 1962. South Yemen remained a British protectorate known as the Aden Protectorate until 1967. The two Yemeni states united to form the modern republic of Yemen in 1990.
 
      950 BC - 115 BC       Sabean Kingdom (Kingdom of Sheba).
      100 BC - 525 AD       Himyar Kingdom
         525 - 575          Part of Axum (Ethiopia).
         575 - 632          Part of Sassainian (Persian) Empire.
         861 - 997          Ya'furid dynasty rule over Sana'a.
        1022 - 1159         Najahid dynasty rule over Zabid.
        1047 - 1138         Sulayhid dynasty rules over Yemen.
        1173 - 1229         Ayyubids of Egypt controls South Yemen and Aden.
               1229         Rasulid dynasty breaks away from Ayyubid rule.
        1229 - 1442         Rasulid dynasty rule over Yemen.
        1454 - 1517         Tahirid dynasty rule over Yemen.
        1511 - 1517         Sana'a occupied by the Egyptian Mameluke Sultanate.
        1517 - 1636         Part of the Ottoman Empire (conquest of Sana'a 23 Aug 1547).
               1517         Ottoman Eyalet of Yemen established.
 21 Aug 1567 - 26 Jul 1569  Anti-Ottoman rebellion in Sana'a.
               Sep 1597     Qasimi State established, called Yemen from c.1905.
               1849         Ottoman Eyalet of Yemen re-established.
               25 Apr 1872  Ottomans re-occupy Sana'a, Vilayet of Yemen established.
 23 Nov 1876 - Apr 1905     Annexed to Ottoman Empire.

                  Sep 1904  Anti-Ottoman revolt begins.
    Apr 1905 - Sep 1905     Yemenis occupy Sana'a.
               30 Oct 1918  Independence from Ottoman (Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen).
               23 Jan 1919  Last Ottoman forces in northern Yemen surrender.
               24 Jul 1923  Turkey sovereignty over Yemen ended by the Treaty of Lausanne.
               1926         Nejd annexes Najran (not recognized by Yemen).
               02 Sep 1926  Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen internationally recognized.
               20 May 1934  Kingdom of Yemen formally cedes Najran, Asir, and Jizan
                             to Saudi Arabia.
 08 Mar 1958 - 26 Dec 1961  Federated with the United Arab Republic
                             (Egypt [and to 28 Sep 1961 Syria]) as United Arab States.
               26 Sep 1962  North Yemen Civil War; ends 01 Dec 1970
               27 Sep 1962  Yemen Arab Republic
 06 Oct 1972 - 22 May 1990  Kamaran Islands Occupied by North Yemen (Sana'a).
               22 May 1990  Unification with Yemen (Aden) as Republic of Yemen.
 21 May 1994 - 07 Jul 1994  Former South Yemen (Aden) in secession as (Democratic
                             Republic of Yemen)
 
 
This is a list of rulers of Saba and Himyar. It is based on the unabridged book of Dr. Jawad Ali "The history of Arab nations before Islam" which derives and reconstructs the lineage of the kings of Saba and Himyar based on inscriptions and other historiographical evidence. This book is in Arabic and has been translated to Persian. In the Qur'an, the title "Tubba" is used to refer to these rulers. Reference: Brannon M. Wheeler (2002). Prophets in the Quran: An Introduction to the Quran and Muslim Exegesis. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 166. ISBN 0-8264-4956-5.
Kingdom of Saba (Sheba) Version 1 - sources for early Yemeni states disagree to a large extent, and cannot be reconciled with any clarity. Here, therefore, is one version for Saba.
  • Samahu Ali...fl. c. 750 BCE
  • Yada'-il Dharih
  • Yathi'-amar Watar I
  • Yada'-il Bayin I
  • Yathi'-amar Watar II
  • Kariba-il Bayin
  • Dhamar 'Ali Watar
  • Samahu 'Ali Yanif I
  • Yathi'-amar Bayin I
  • Kariba-il Watar I...fl. c. 450 BCE
  • Samahu 'Ali Darih
  • Kariba-il Watar II
  • Il-Sharah I
  • Yada
  • Yakrib
  • Yathi'
  • Karib-il
  • Samah
  • Il-Sharah II
  • Dhamar
  • Yada'
  • Dhamar
  • Karib-il Watar IV
  • Il-Karib Yuhan'im
  • Karib-il Watar V
  • Wahb-il
  • Anmar Yuhan'im
  • Dhamar 'Ali Darih
  • Nash'a-Karib Yuhamin
  • Nasir Yuhan'im
  • Wahb-il Yahuz
  • Karib-il Watar Yuhan'im
  • Yarim Ayman I...c. 80-c. 60 BCE
  • Alhan Nahfan...c. 60- ?
  • Far'um Yanhab
  • Yarim Ayman II...c. 35-c. 25
  • Sha'irum Awtar...c. 25 BCE- ? with...
  • Yazil Bayin...c. 25 BCE- ? and...
  • Ilasharah Yahdub...c. 25 BCE- ? (survived the above two)
  • To Himyar

Note: The two names Sheba (spelled in Hebrew with shin) and Seba (spelled with samekh) are mentioned several times in the Bible with different genealogy. For instance, in the Generations of Noah Seba, along with Dedan, is listed as a descendant of Noah's son Ham (as sons of Raamah, son of Cush). Later on in Genesis, Sheba and Dedan are listed as names of sons of Jokshan, son of Abraham. Another Sheba is listed in the Table of Nations as a son of Joktan. Another descendant of Noah's son Shem.
There are several possible reasons for this confusion. One theory is that the Sabaean established many colonies to control the trade routes and the variety of their caravan stations confused the ancient Israelites, as their ethnology was based on geographical and political grounds and not necessarily racial. Another theory suggests that the Sabaeans hailed from the southern Levant and established their kingdom on the ruins of the Minaeans. It remains a theory however and cannot be confirmed. The most famous claim to fame for the Biblical land of Sheba was the story of the Queen of Sheba, who travelled to Jerusalem to question King Solomon, arriving in a large caravan with precious stones, spices and gold (1 Kings 10). The apocryphal Christian Arabic text Kitāb al-Magall ("Book of the Rolls"), considered part of Clementine literature) and the Syriac Cave of Treasures, mention a tradition that after being founded by the children of Saba (son of Joktan), there was a succession of sixty female rulers up until the time of Solomon. Josephus, in his Antiquities of the Jews, describes a place called Saba as a walled, royal city of Ethiopia that Cambyses II renamed as Meroë. He writes that "it was both encompassed by the Nile quite round, and the other rivers, Astapus and Astaboras", offering protection from both foreign armies and river floods. According to Josephus it was the conquering of Saba that brought great fame to a young Egyptian prince, simultaneously exposing his personal background as a slave child named Moses.

Kingdom of Saba (Sheba) Version 2 - sources for early Yemeni states disagree to a large extent, and cannot be reconciled with any clarity. Here, therefore, is another version for Saba.
 
  • Mukkaribs (High Priests) of Sabians (1200-800 BCE)
  • unknown rulers
  • Mukkaribs of Saba
  • Yada’il Yanif ben Kariba-il...c. 755-c. 740
  • Samahu 'Ali Darih I ben Yada’il Yanuf...c. 740-715
  • Yathi'-amar Bayin I
  • Dhamar 'Ali I
  • Kariba-il Watar I...c.685-c.675
  • Samahu’Ali I
  • Yada’il Darih I
  • Samahu 'Ali Yanuf I
  • Darih
  • Yathi'-amar Watar
  • Yada’il Bayin I
  • Karib-il Bayin I
  • Dhamar 'Ali Watar
  • Samahu’Ali Yanuf II...c. 545-c. 525
  • Kings (Maliks) of Saba
  • Yathi’-amar Bayin II...c. 525-c. 495
  • Kariba-il I
  • Yada’il I with...
  • Yathi’-amar I
  • Kariba-il II
  • Samahu’Ali II
  • Yada'il II
  • Yathi’amar II
  • Yada’il Bayin II
  • Samahu’Ali Yanuf III...c. 410-c. 380 with...
  • Yathi’-amar Watar I
  • Yaqrub Malik Darih
  • Samahu’Ali Yanuf IV
  • Yada’il Bayin III
  • Yaqrub Malik Watar I
  • Yathi’-amar Bayin III
  • Karib-il Watar II...c. 320-c. 270
  • Yada’il Bayin IV
  • Yaqrub Malik Watar II
  • Dhamar’Ali Yanuf
  • Yathi’-amar Bayin IV
  • Samahu’Ali Darih II...c. 200-c. 175
  • Karib-il Bayin II
  • Yathi’-amar III
  • unknown ruler...c. 140-c. 116
  • To Himyar...116-55
  • Samahu’Ali Yanuf V...c. 55
  • Yada’il Watar I...c. 30
  • Dhamar’Ali Bayin I...c. 25
  • Yadail Darih II...c. 10 BCE-c. 10 CE
  • Yathi’-amar Watar II...c. 10-20
  • Yada’il Watar II...c. 20-30
  • Dhamar 'Ali Bayin II...c. 30-60
  • Karib-il Watar Yuhan'im...c. 60-75
  • Dhamar’Ali Darih...c. 75-85
  • Ilasharah Yahdub...c. 85-100
  • Mostly parts to Himyar thereafter, but see also Gurat and Marib. These two nations were the remnants of Sheba and both fell to Himyar in the 3rd Century.
  • GURAT - A Yemeni Kingdom; a relict of Saba remaining after the Himyarite conquest of the 1st/2nd century CE.
  • Nash'a-Karib Yahamin ben Dhamar’Ali Bayin II...c. 85-c. 100
  • Sa'd Shams Asra ben Ilsharah Yahdub...c. 100-c. 130
  • Murtaza Yuham'in...c. 130-c. 160
  • unknown ruler
  • Farim Yanhub...c. 180-c. 200
  • Ilsharah Yahdub II...c. 200-c. 230
  • Nash'a-Karib Yamin...c. 230-c. 250
  • To Himyar thereafter...
  • MARIB - A Yemeni Kingdom; a relict of old Saba after the conquest of central Yemen by Himyar.
  • Kurb ail Watur ibn Thamar ibn Ali...fl. 300's BCE
  • Yas'a...fl. 300's BCE
  • unknown rulers
  • Bahab’il Yahuz...c. 100-c. 130
  • Anmar Yuhamin....c. 130-c. 140
  • Kariba-il Watar Yuham’in
  • Rabb Shams Nimran
  • Sahr Autar...c. 190-c. 200
  • Lahay’atat Yarham...c. 200
  • unknown ruler
  • To Himyar about c.250
In the Quran, Sheba is mentioned in surat an-Naml in a section that speaks of the visit of the Queen of Sheba to Solomon. The Quran mentions this ancient community along with other communities that were destroyed by God. Bilqis reclining in a garden, Persian miniature (ca. 1595), tinted drawing on paper Illustration in a Hafez Frontispiece Depicting Queen Sheba, Walters manuscript W.631, around 1539 In the Quran, the story essentially follows the Bible and other Jewish sources. Solomon commanded the Queen of Sheba to come to him as a subject, whereupon she appeared before him (an-Naml, 30–31, 45). Before the queen had arrived, Solomon had moved her throne to his place with the help of a jinn. She recognized the throne, which had been disguised, and finally accepted the faith of Solomon.
Muslim commentators such as al-Tabari, al-Zamakhshari, al-Baydawi supplement the story at various points. The Queen's name is given as Bilqis, probably derived from Greek παλλακίς or the Hebraised pilegesh, "concubine". According to some he then married the Queen, while other traditions assert that he gave her in marriage to a tubba of Hamdan. According to the Islamic tradition as represented by al-Hamdani, the queen of Sheba was the daughter of Ilsharah Yahdib, the Himyarite king of Najran.
Muslim scholars, including Ibn Kathir, related that the people of Sheba were Arabs from South Arabia. In Ethiopian tradition, the Sheba (Saba in Ethiopic) who was Joktan's son is considered their primary ancestor, while Sabtah and Sabtechah, sons of Cush, are considered the ancestors of the Cushites.
Traditional Yemenite genealogies also mention Saba, son of Qahtan; however, they claim Sabaean descent not from him, but from yet another Saba not mentioned in scripture who was said to be a grandson of Ya'rub and a great-grandson of Qahtan.
In the medieval Ethiopian Kebra Nagast, Sheba was located in Ethiopia. Some scholars therefore point to a region in the northern Tigray Region and Eritrea, which was once called Saba (later called Meroë), as a possible link with the biblical Sheba. Donald N. Levine linka Sheba with Shewa (the province where modern Addis Ababa is located) in Ethiopia.
The location of the kingdom mentioned in the Bible was long disputed. Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman suggest that the kingdom was located in southern Arabia. Owing to the connection with the Queen of Sheba, the location has become closely linked with national prestige, and various royal houses claimed descent from the Queen of Sheba and Solomon. According to the medieval Ethiopian work Kebra Nagast, Sheba was located in Ethiopia. Ruins in many other countries, including Sudan, Egypt, Ethiopia and Iran have been credited as being Sheba, but with only minimal evidence. Even a massive earthen monument of the Yoruba people in Nigeria known as Sungbo's Eredo is held by Yoruba oral tradition to have been built in honour of the powerful queen Oloye Bilikisu Sungbo, who is often equated with Queen Bilqis.
 
The Ḥimyarite Kingdom or Ḥimyar

(Arabic: مملكة حِمْيَر‎‎, Mamlakat Ḥimyar) (Hebrew: ממלכת חִמְיָר‎‎) (Flourished 110 BCE–520s CE), historically referred to as the Homerite Kingdom by the Greeks and the Romans, was a kingdom in ancient Yemen. Established in 110 BCE, it took as its capital the ancient city of Zafar, to be followed at the beginning of the 4th century by what is the modern-day city of Sana'a. The kingdom conquered neighbouring Saba' (Sheba) in c. 25 BCE (for the first time), Qataban in c. 200 CE, and Haḍramaut c. 300 CE. Its political fortunes relative to Saba' changed frequently until it finally conquered the Sabaean Kingdom around 280. Himyar then endured until it finally fell to invaders from the Kingdom of Aksum (Ethiopia) in 525. As with Saba list above, Himyar ruler list is inconsistent with other sources, therefore they are two versions show below.

 
  • Zu-Raidan - An earlier core of Himyar.
  • Haris ar-Ra’ish...c. 120 BCE-c. 90
  • Zu-l-Karnain...c. 90- ?
  • Abrahah Zu-l-Mamur
  • Africis
  • Zu-l-Adjar...c. 20 BCE-10 CE
  • Sharah-bil
  • Bilkis (female)
  • Shammar Zarash
  • Abu Malik
  • Yasir Yuhasdiq...c. 80-c. 100
  • Dhamar 'Ali Yuhabir I...c. 100-c. 120
  • Tharan Ya'ubb Yuhan'im
  • Shammar Yuharish I...? -c. 160
  • To Saba...c. 160-c. 195
  • Laziz Yuhnaf Yuhasdiq...c. 195-c. 200
  • Yasir Yuhan'im I
  • Shammar Yuharish II
  • Kariba’il Yuhan’im
  • Tharan Ya'ubb Yuhan'im...c. 230-c. 250
  • Dhamar ‘Ali Watar Yuhabir II
  • Amdan Bayin Yuhagbid
  • Yasir Yuhanim II
  • Shamir Yuhar'ish III...fl. c. 290
  • Kingdom of Himyar
  • Nash'a-Karib Yamin Yuharhib...fl. c. 1 CE
  • Watar Yuhamin
  • Yasir Yuhasdiq
  • Dhamar 'Ali Yuhabir I
  • Tharan Ya'ubb Yuhan'im
  • Dhamar 'Ali Yuhabir II
  • Dhamar 'Ali Bayin
  • Karib-il Watar
  • Halk-amar
  • Dhamar 'Ali Dharih
  • Yada'-il Watar...c. 200- ?
  • unknown ruler
  • Il-Adhdh Naufan Yuhasdiq...c. 245- ?
  • Yasir Yuhan'im II
  • Shamir Yuhar'ish III...fl. c. 290
  • Yarim Yarhab

 

  • From c. 310, both lists merges together
  • Axum (Ethiopia)........................................c. 310 - c. 378
  • ABYSSINIAN
  • unknown rulers
  • Ela Amida of Axum......................................c. 340 - c. 378
  • HIMYARID
  • Malik-Karib Yuhamin....................................c. 378 - c. 385
  • Ab-Karib As'ad (Kamil ut-Tubba)........................c. 385 - c. 420
  • Ab-Karib is spoken of in traditional lore as having been the first Himyarid King to accept Judaism. Certainly Masruq, below (early 6th century) was Jewish, and there was formerly a large Yemenite Jewish population.
  • Warau-amar Ayman (Hasan Yuhan’im)......................c. 420 - c. 433
  • Sharah-bil Ya'fur......................................c. 433 - ?
  • Ma'ad-Karib
  • Abd-Kilal
  • Sharah-bil Yakuf..........................................464 - ?
  • Nauf
  • Lahi-'Athra Yanuf
  • Marthad-ilan Yanuf........................................496 - ?
  • Ma'adi-Karib Ya'fur....................................c. 500 - c. 517
  • Masruq Dhu-Nuwas (Yusuf Ash'ar)........................c. 517 - 525
 
General sequence of Yemen rulers
 
  • Qahtan ibn 'Aber...................................1556 BCE - ?
  • As a case in point, "Qahtan" also appears in early Hebrew genealogies, as Joktan ben Ever (Eber, Heber), a son of the eponymous ancestor of the Habiru (Hebrew) nomadic peoples.
  • Ya'rub ibn Qahtan
  • Possibly the Jerah ben Joktan referred to in the genealogies referenced in the note just above.
  • Yeshjub ibn Ya'rub
  • Saba' ibn Yeshjub
  • Himyar ibn Saba'
  • al-'Aranjah ibn Himyar
  • al-Humaisi' ibn Himyar
  • Ayman ibn al-Humaisi'
  • Zuhayr ibn Ayman
  • 'Arib ibn Zuhayr
  • Jaydan ibn 'Arib
  • Katan ibn 'Arib
  • al-Ghawth ibn Jaydan
  • Wail ibn al-Ghawth
  • 'Abd Shams ibn Wail
  • as-sawwar ibn 'Abd Shams
  • Dhu Yakdem ibn as-Sawwar
  • Dhu Abian
  • al-Miltat
  • Shadar ibn al-Miltat
  • Watar ibn Shadar
  • Tubba' ibn Yezid al-Hamadhani............................ ? - 1230 BCE
  • The State of at-Tababi'a
  • al-Harith ar-Raish.....................................1230 - 1105 BCE sic...
  • Abrahah Dhul Manar.....................................1105 - 922 sic...
  • Afrikis ibn Abrahah.....................................922 - 758 sic...
  • al-'Abd Dhu al-Adh'ar...................................758 - 733
  • al-Hedhed ibn Sharahil..................................733 - 658
  • Balkis bint al-Hedhed (female)..........................658 - 638
  • Nashir an-Ni'am.........................................638 - 553
  • Shammar Yar'ish.........................................553 - 516
  • Abu Malik...............................................516 - 461
  • Tubba' ibn al-Akran.....................................461 - 408
  • Dhu Jaychan.............................................408 - 338
  • al-Akran ibn Abu Malik..................................338 - 175 sic...
  • Kalikarib...............................................175 - 140
  • Ass'ad Abu Karib........................................140 - 20 sic...
  • Hassan ibn Tubba'....................................20 BCE - 50 CE
  • 'Amr ibn Tubba'..........................................50 - 113
  • 'Abid Kilel.............................................113 - 187
  • Tubba' ibn Hassan.......................................187 - 265
  • Marthid ibn 'Abid.......................................265 - 306
  • Wali'a ibn Marthid......................................306 - 343
  • Abrahah ibn as-Sabbah...................................343 - 416
  • Sahban ibn Muhrath......................................416 - 431
  • Hassan ibn 'Amr ibn Tubba'..............................431 - 488
  • Dhu Shanatir............................................488 - 515
  • Yusuf Ash'ar Masruq Dhu-Nuwas (King of Himyar)..........515 - 525
  • Mastuq Dhu-Nuwas was born, or a convert, to Judaism, which resulted in the invasion of Yemen by Ethiopian Christians, with the active connivance of the Byzantine Empire.
  • Ethiopia................................................525 - c. 533
    • Sumu-Yafa' Ashwa' (Esimfey)........................526 - c. 533 opposed by...
  • Dhu Jadan (Himyar dynasty)..............................525 - 533
  • Ethiopic Himyar ("South Arabia")........................533 - 575
    • ABYSSINIAN
    • Abrahah (al-Ashram).............................c. 533 - 570
    • Abrahah was the Ethiopian commander in South Asia before assuming control of the client state and proclaining himself King of South Arabia.
    • Yaksum.............................................570 - 577
    • Sayf Zu-Yazan (Abu Murra)..........................577 - 587
    • Ma'adi-Karib (Masruq)..............................587 - 599
    • Persia (Sassanids).................................599 - 629
    • Khorre-Khusrau.....................................599 - 620
      Badan...........................................c. 620 - 629
  • Himyar..................................................575 - 577
  • Persia (Sassanids)......................................577 - 631
  • The Caliphate...........................................631 - 819
    • Abu Musa Amr ibn Hazm..............................629 - 630
    • Mua'adh ibn Jabal (1st time).......................630 - 632
    • Khalid ibn Sa'id...................................632 - ?
    • Yala ibn Umayya..........................................630's
    • Mua'adh ibn Jabal (2nd time).............................fl. c. 640
    • Yala (2nd time?).................................... ? - 656
    • Ubaid'Allah ibn Abbas (Ali'id [Shi'ite])...........656 - 661 opposed by...
    • Busr ibn Abu Artat (Umayyad [Sunni])...............660 - 670's opposed by...
    • Jariah ibn Qudama (Ali'id)...............................660's
    • unknown rulers
    • Muhammad ibn Ziyad.......................................819
    • In 819 the Caliph al-Ma'mun appointed Muhammad ibn Ziyad as governor of Yemen. Ironically, ibn Ziyad was one of the last remaining kinsmen of the Umayyad Caliphs in the East, the rest having largely been exterminated in the middle of the previous century. (This was but one of al-Ma'mun's odd appointments; the Caliph had at one point considered Ali al-Rida, a Shi'ite, as his successor, sparing a revolution). Ibn Ziyad's authority soon crumbled, and Yemen was lost to the Caliphate. Ibn Ziyad and his descendents continued to rule at Zabid.
    • Itakh al-Khazari..................................839 - 844
    • Itakh was a Khazar ghulam in Abbasid service who was made governor of Yemen by the Caliph in 839. His position was largely titular as Yemen had by this time disintigrated into a collection of feuding states, only some of whom acknowledged even nominal allegiance to the Caliphate.
  • An era of fragmentation, when several local states formed in various parts of southwestern Arabia, as well as the extension of Fatamid and Carmathian influence into the region. Aden, Dhu Jibla, Najran, San'a and Zabid. Unity was re-imposed upon Yemen with the invasion of the Ayyubids.
  • ZIYADID
  • Muhammad ibn Ziyad had been sent to Yemen as the appointed Caliphate governor of all Yemen - his authority rapidly vanished in the face of widespread turmoil and separatist movements, and so he contented himself with establishing his own independent dynasty at Zabid. Zabid is a city-state in southern Yemen, periodically exercising control over the Hadramaut region and the coastal lowlands. Ziyadid were under Caliphate control from c.630 to 1018.
  • Muhammad ibn Ziyad......................................818 - 859
  • Ibrahim ibn Muhammad....................................859 - 896
  • Ziyad ibn Ibrahim.......................................896 - 902
  • --- ibn Ziyad...........................................902 - 911
  • Ishaq ibn Ibrahim Abu'l Jaysh...........................911 - 981 ?
  • Abdallah Ziyad ibn Ishaq................................981 - 1012
  • Ibrahim Abdallah ibn Abdallah..........................1012 - 1018
  • Though the Ziyadids continued to rule for some time as puppets, true power passed to their black slave ministers, one of whom founded the Najahid dynasty.
    • RASSID (at Sana'a)
    • An interior city in the far south of the Arabian Peninsula, currently the capital of Yemen. From the 9th century, it has been a center of the Zayidi Shi'ite sect.
    • al-Qasim ibn Ibrahim al-Hasani al-Rasi...........840 ? - 860
    • al-Husayn ibn al-Qasim
    • Yahya ibn al-Husayn al-Hadi ila 'l Haqq............897 - 911
    • Mohammed ibn Yahya al-Murtada......................911 - 922 with...
    • Ahmad ibn Yahya al-Nasr............................913 - 934
    • Yahya ibn Ahmad....................................934 - 956
    • interregunum.......................................956 - 968
    • Yusuf ibn Yahya al-Mansur al-Da'i..................968 - 998 d. 1012
    • al-Qasim ibn Ali al-Iyani..........................998 - 1003
    • interregunum......................................1003 - 1010
    • al-Husayn ubn al-Qasim al-Mahdi...................1010 - 1013
    • interregunum......................................1013 - 1022
    • Dja'far ibn al-Qasim..............................1022 - 1035
    • al-Hasan ibn 'Abd al-Rahman.......................1035 - 1040
    • unknown ruler
    • Abu'l Fath ibn al-Husayn, al-Daylami al-Nasr......1045 - 1062 ?
 

SA#1068 Silver Sudaysi. Year: AH 301-325 (913 - 937). Weight: 0.27 g. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 14.50 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Sa'da. Obverse: Islamic Kalima written within the center circle. Reverse: King's name and title in the center circle. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 301-325 (913-937). Ruler: Ahmad ibn Yahya al-Nasr. Note: Common type.
 
  • NAJAHID
  • Najah al-Muayyad Nasr ud-Din...........................1022 - 1060
  • SULAYHID
  • Sulayhid were mainly at Dhu Jibla, a locale in central Yemen, the main base for a tribal confederacy, Ismai'li Shi'ites and adherents of the Fatimid claimants to the Caliphate. They were under Caliphate (c. 625-c. 910) and then Fatamid sphere of influence (c. 910-1138).
  • Ali ibn Muhammad al-Sulayhi............................1060 - 1080
  • He ruled Dhu Jibla and Aden 1040 - 1080 and Sana'a in 1062.
    • RASSID (at Sana'a)
    • Hamza ibn Abi Hashim............................1062 ? - 1066
    • al-Fadl ibn Dja'far...............................1067 - 1068
    • Muhammad ibn Dja'far..............................1068 - 1085
    • interregunum......................................1085 - 1099
  • NAJAHID
  • Sa'id ibn Najah al-Ahwal (2nd time)....................1081 - 1083 d. 1089
  • SULAYHID
  • Ahmad ibn Ali al-Mukarram (1st time)...................1083 - 1086
  • He ruled Dhu Jibla 1080 - 1086 and Aden 1084-1086.
    • At Dhu Jibla
    • al-Sayyida Arwa bint Ahmad (female)...............1086 - 1138 > with...
    • Ali ibn Ahmad al-Ashghar..........................1086 - 1091 and then...
    • al-Mansur Saba ibn Ahmad..........................1091 - 1099
    • ZURAY'ID (at Aden)
    • al-Abbas ibn al-Mukarram..........................1080 - 1084
    • al-Mas'ud ibn al-Mukarram.........................1084 - 1110 with...
    • Zuray ibn al-Abbas................................1084 - 1110
    • Period of anarchy, 1110-1138, during which al-Masud's and Zuray's sons (Abu 'l Su'ud ibn Zuray', Abu 'l Gharat ibn al-Mas'ud, Saba' ibn Abi 'l-Su'ud, Muhammad, and 'Ali ibn Muhammad) wage war against one another.
    • Saba ibn Abi Saud bin Zuray..............................1138
    • Ali Al-A'azz ibn Saba.............................1138 - 1139
    • Muhammad ibn Saba al-Mu'azzam.....................1139 - 1153
    • Imran ibn Muhammad................................1153 - 1166
    • Vizier Jawhar al-Mu'azzami (regent for Imran's infant sons...1166 - 1175)
    • Below is more details of the rulers on two main Castles.
    • Al-Masood line - Al Khadhra Castle rulers:
      • Al-Masood bin al-Mukarram (1083-1110)
      • Abi Al-Gharat bin Al-Mas'ud (1110-?)
      • Muhammad bin Abi Al-Gharat bin Al-Msaod (?-?)
      • Ali bin Muhammad bin Abi Al-Gharat bin Al-Mas'ud (?-1150)
    • Al-Abbas line - Al Ta'kar Castle rulers:
      • Al-Abbas bin al-Mukarram (1083-1084)
      • Zuray bin Al-Abbas (1084-1110)
      • Abi Saud bin Zuray (1110-?)
      • Saba bin Abi Saud bin Zuray (?-1138)
      • Ali Al-A'azz bin Saba (1138-1139)
      • Muhammad bin Saba (1139-1153)
      • Imran Muhammad bin Saba (1153-1166)
      • Muhammad bin Imran Muhammad bin Saba (1166-1174) and
      • Abi Saud bin Imran Muhammad bin Saba (1166-1174)
    • HAMDANID: Banu Hatim (at Sana'a)
    • Hatim ibn al-Ghashim al-Hamdani...................1099 - 1109
    • Abdallah ibn Hatim................................1109 - 1111
    • Ma'n ibn Hatim....................................1111 - 1116
    • HAMDANID: Banu'l Qubayb (at Sana'a)
    • Hisham ibn al-Qubayb ibn Rusah....................1116 - 1117 d. 1124
    • RASSID (at Sana'a)
    • Yahya ibn Muhammad Abu Talib......................1117 - 1137
    • 'Ali ibn Zayd.....................................1137 - 1138
    • Ahmad ibn Sulayman al-Mutawakkil..................1138 - 1171
    • unknown ruler 1171-1174
  • NAJAHID
  • Sa'id ibn Najah al-Ahwal (2nd time)....................1086 - 1089
  • Jayyash ibn Najah Abu Tami.............................1089 - 1107
  • Fatiq I ibn Jayyash....................................1107 - 1109
  • al-Mansur ibn Fatiq....................................1109 - 1124
  • Fatiq II ibn al-Mansur.................................1124 - 1137
  • Fatiq III ibn Muhammad.................................1137 - 1158 opposed by...
  • MAHDID
  • 'Ali ibn Mahdi al-Ru'ayni al-Himyari...................1137 - 1159
  • Mahdi ibn 'Ali.........................................1159 - 1163 with...
  • Abd al-Nabi ibn 'Ali...................................1159 - 1174
  • AYYUBID
  • al-Mu'azzam Shams-ud-Din Turan-Shah....................1173 - 1181 d. 1186/7
  • al-Aziz Zahir-ud-Din Tughtigin.........................1181 - 1197
  • Mu'izz ud-Din Ismail...................................1197 - 1202
  • an-Nasir Ayyub.........................................1202 - 1214
  • al-Muzaffar Sulaiman...................................1214 - 1215 d. 1251/2
  • al-Masud Saladin Yusuf.................................1215 - 1229
    • RASSID (at Sana'a)
    • Abdallah ibn Hamza al-Mansur......................1187 - 1217 at Sana'a with...
    • Abdallah ibn Hamza al-Mansur......................1187 - 1217
    • Yahya ibn Hamza, Najim al-Din al-Hadi ila l'Haqq..1217 - 1248 opposed by
    • Muhammad ibn 'Abdallah, Izz al-Din al-Nasr........1217 - 1226
    • Ahmad ibn al-Husayn al-Mahdi al-Muti..............1248 - 12558
  • RASULID
  • al-Mansur Nur-ud-Din Umar I............................1229 - 1250
  • al-Muzaffar Shams-ud-Din Yusuf I.......................1250 - 1295
  • al-Ashraf Mumahhis-ud-Din Umar II......................1295 - 1296
  • al-Mu'ayyad Hizabr-ud-Din Daud.........................1296 - 1322
  • al-Mujahid Saif-ud-Din Ali.............................1322 - 1363
  • al-Afdal Dirgham-ud-Din al-Abbas.......................1363 - 1377
  • al-Ashraf Mumahhid-ud-Din Ismail I.....................1377 - 1400
  • an-Nasir Saladin Ahmad.................................1400 - 1424
  • al-Mansur Abdallah.....................................1424 - 1427
  • al-Ashraf Ismail II....................................1427 - 1428
  • az-Zahir Yahya.........................................1428 - 1439
  • al-Ashraf Ismail III...................................1439 - 1442
  • al-Muzaffar Yusuf II...................................1442 - 1450/1 opposed by...
  • Mohammed......................................................1442/3
  • Abdallah (II).................................................1442/3
  • al-Masud.............................................1450/1 - 1454 with...
  • al-Husayn............................................1450/1 - 1454
  • TAHIRID at al-Miqrana and Juban.
  • az-Zafir Amir I Saladin................................1454 - 1460 with...
  • al-Mujahid Ali Shams al-Din............................1454 - 1478
  • al-Mansur Abdul-Wahhab Taj-ud-Din......................1478 - 1489
  • az-Zafir Amir II Saladin...............................1489 - 1517
  • Five further Tahirid princes continued to rule in remote fortresses. The first of the five was Ahmad ibn Amir; The last one, Amir III ibn Daoud, was executed by the Ottomans in 1538.
  • Ottoman Empire..............................................1517 - 1597
  • QASIMID [Imams and (from 02 Sep 1926) kings]
  • al-Qasim I al-Mansur bin Muhammad.......................Sep 1597 - 19 Feb 1620
  • Muhammad I al-Mu'ayyad bin al-Mansur Bi'llah Qasim...19 Sep 1620 - 29 Sep 1644
  • Ala Allah Ismail al-Mutawakkil bin al-Mansur Bi'llah Qasim..29 Sep 1644 - Aug 1676
  • Ahmad I al-Mahdi bin al-Hassan..........................Aug 1676 - 29 Jun 1681
  • Muhammad II al-Mutawakkil ibn Ala Allah Ismail.......29 Jun 1681 - 27 Apr 1686
  • Muhammad III al-Nasr al-Hadi al-Mahdi ibn Ahmad......27 Apr 1686 - 02 Aug 1718
  • al-Qasim II al-Mutawakkil ibn Hussein (1st time)............1718 - 1723
  • Nasir Muhammad IV ibn Ishaq........................................1723
  • al-Qasim II al-Mutawakkil ibn Hussein (2nd time)............1723 - 23 Apr 1727
  • Muhammad V al-Hadi al-Majid ibn Ali.........................1727 - 1728
  • al-Husain al-Mansur ibn Qasim...............................1728 - 06 Mar 1748
  • al-Abbas I al-Mahdi ibn Mansur.......................07 Mar 1748 - 04 Sep 1775
  • Ali I al-Mansur ibn al-Abbas.........................15 Sep 1775 - 25 Oct 1809
  • Ahmad II al-Mahdi al-Mutawakkil ibn Ali..............25 Oct 1809 - 09 Sep 1816
  • Abdallah I al-Mahdi ibn Ahmad........................10 Sep 1816 - 28 Nov 1835
  • Ali II al-Mansur ibn Abdullah (1st time).............28 Nov 1835 - Feb 1837
  • Abdullah II al-Mahdi al-Nasir ibn al-Hassan.............Feb 1837 - Feb 1840
  • Muhammad IV ibn Ahmad al-Hadi...........................Apr 1840 - 10 Jan 1844
  • al-Qasim al-Mahdi ibn Ahmad (in rebellion)..................1841 - 1844
  • Ali II al-Mansur ibn Abdullah (2nd time).............08 Jan 1844 - Dec 1845
  • Muzaffar ad-Din Muhammad V al-Mutawakkil ibn Yahya......Dec 1845 - 1848
  • Ahmad III al-Mansur ibn Hashim..............................1848 - 1849
  • Ali II ibn Abdullah (3rd time)..............................1849 - 1850
  • al-Abbas II ibn Abd ar-Rahman......................................1850 (3 months)
  • Ghalib ibn Muhammad (1st time)..............................1850 - 1852
  • Ahmad ibn Ahmad al-Haymi (governor of Sana'a)...............1852 - 1857
  • Sheikh Abdullah ibn Yusuf (governor of Sana'a)..............1857 - 1858
  • Chronic civil war and Turkish interference..................1857 - 1871
  • Ghalib ibn Muhammad (2nd time)..............................1858 - 1872
  • al-Husayn ibn Muhammad (in rebellion).......................1859 - 1863
  • Ottoman Empire..............................................1871 - 1918 opposed by...
    • Ottoman Walis (governors) of Yemen
    • Mustafa Sabri Pasha................................May 1850 - Mar 1851
    • Mehmed Sirri Pasha.................................Mar 1851 - Oct 1851
    • Bonaparta Mustafa Pasha............................Oct 1851 - May 1852
    • Kürt Mehmed Pasha..................................May 1852 - May 1856
    • Babanli Ahmed Pasha (1st time).....................May 1856 - Dec 1862
    • Musullu Ali Yaver Pasha............................Dec 1862 - Aug 1864
    • Babanli Ahmed Pasha (2nd time).....................Aug 1864 - Feb 1867
    • Tacirli Ahmed Pasha................................Feb 1867 - Mar 1869
    • Halepli Ali Pasha..................................Mar 1869 - May 1871
    • Topal Bursali Mehmed Redif Pasha...................May 1871 - Aug 1871
    • Katircioglu Ahmed Muhtar Pasha.....................Sep 1871 - May 1873
    • Ahmed Eyyub Pasha..................................May 1873 - Apr 1875
    • Mustafa Asim Pasha.................................Apr 1875 - Apr 1879
    • Botgoriceli Ismail Hakki Pasha.....................Dec 1879 - Dec 1882
    • Mehmed Izzet Pasha.................................Dec 1882 - Dec 1884
    • Ahmed Fevzi Pasha (1st time).......................Dec 1884 - Dec 1886
    • Ahmed Aziz Pasha...................................Dec 1886 - Dec 1887
    • Topal Osman Nuri Pasha.............................Dec 1887 - Jun 1889
    • Potirikli Osman Nuri Pasha.........................Jun 1889 - May 1890
    • Botgoriceli Ismail Hakki Pasha.....................May 1890 - Apr 1891
    • Hasan Edip Pasha...................................Apr 1891 - Dec 1891
    • Ahmed Fevzi Pasha (2nd time).......................Dec 1891 - May 1898
    • Huseyin Hilmi Pasha................................May 1898 - Oct 1902
    • Çerkes Abdullah Reshid Pasha.......................Oct 1902 - Aug 1904
    • Biren Mehmed Tevfik Pasha..........................Aug 1904 - Aug 1905
    • Ahmed Fevzi Pasha (3rd time).......................Aug 1905 - Oct 1908
    • Arnavud Hasan Tahsin Pasha.........................Oct 1908 - Jan 1910
    • Kamil Bey..........................................Jan 1910 - Apr 1910
    • Mehmed Ali Pasha...................................Apr 1910 - Nov 1911
    • Akdilek Mahmud Pasha...............................Nov 1911 - Nov 1918
  • Muhsin ibn Ahmad (in rebellion from 1871)...................1872 - 1876
  • Sharaf ad-Din Muhammad (at Sa`da).......................Oct 1878 - 1890
  • Muhammad V al-Huthi al-Mahdi (in rebellion).................1882 - 1901
  • Muhammad VI al-Mansur ibn Yahya Hamid ad-Din............Jul 1890 - 04 Jun 1904
  • Seif ul-Islam Yahya al-Mutawakkil ibn Muhammad.......04 Jun 1904 - 02 Sep 1926
 

SA#1141 Silver Dirham. Year: AH 1109-1130 (1697 - 1718). Weight: 1.55 g [2.00 - 3.00g]. Metal: Silver. Diameter: 19.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Sana'a. Obverse: N/A. Reverse: N/A. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 1109-1130 (1697 - 1718). Ruler: al-Abbas I al-Mahdi ibn Mansur [AH 1161-1189 = 1748-1775]. Note: Scarce type.

Note: Silver coins of his reign were struck mainly at Sana'a, but the mint name is frequently omitted. There are several smaller denominations, but they are have not yet been definitively identified. The ruler used his name as "al-Nasir Muhammad" during AH1098-1105 (1687-1693AD), "al-Hadi Muhammad" during AH1105-1109 (1693-1697AD) and "al-Madhi Muhammad" during AH1109-1130 (1697-1718AD). According to Stephen Album, "Yemen coins are the most unappreciated coins on the face of the planet".

 
Click below on below rulers links to view their coinage:
 
  • Mutawakkilite Kingdom - QASIMID
  • Title: Imam and King
  • Yahya al-Mutawakkil ibn Muhammad (continued).........02 Sep 1926 - 17 Feb 1948
  • Abdullah (III) ibn Ahmad al-Wazir....................18 Feb 1948 - 14 Mar 1948
  • Ahmad (IV) ash-Shams ibn Yahya (1st time)............15 Mar 1948 - 01 Apr 1955
  • Abdullah (IV) ibn Yahya..............................01 Apr 1955 - 05 Apr 1955
  • In 1955 a coup by a group of officers and two of Ahmad's brothers was crushed. In April 1956 Ahmad bin Yahya signed a mutual defense pact with Egypt, involving a unified military command.
  • Ahmad (IV) ash-Shams ibn Yahya (2nd time)............05 Apr 1955 - 18 Sep 1962
  • He died on 18th September 1962 in Taiz, buried Sana'a.
  • Seif ul-Islam Muhammad (VII) al-Badr ibn Ahmad.......19 Sep 1962 - 27 Sep 1962
  • He continuing in rebellion to Mar 1970 (from 1967 at-Ta'if, Saudi Arabia exile).
  • North Yemen Civil war................................26 Sep 1962 - 01 Dec 1970
  • War between Royalist (backed by Saudi Arabia) and Republican (backed by Egypt) factions 1962-1970.
    • Pretenders
    • Muhammad (VII) al-Badr ibn Ahmad (continued)....27 Sep 1962 - 06 Aug 1996
    • Head of the Royal House of Yemen, born 1926. He did not abdicate and did not renounce his claims and titles, married three times, and had two sons and two daughters. He died 6th August 1996 in London, buried at Brookwood Cemetary in Woking, Surrey.
    • Seif ul-Islam Aggile bin Muhammad al-Badr.......06 Aug 1996 - date
 
Click below on earlier coinage of British India used in South of Yemen (Aden):
  • East India Company (inc. William IV and Victoria)16 Aug 1765 - 30 Sep 1858
  • Victoria.........................................01 Nov 1858 - 22 Jan 1901
  • Edward VII.......................................22 Jan 1901 - 06 May 1910
  • George V.........................................06 May 1910 - 20 Jan 1936
  • George VI........................................12 Dec 1936 - 15 Aug 1947

Rulers with Coins of Yemen states under British Protectorate:

Rulers and Coins of Yemen 1962 to 1990 can be viewed by clicking the below links:

Republic of Yemen
  • Chairman of the Presidential Council
  • Ali Abdullah Saleh...............................22 May 1990 - 01 Oct 1994
  • He was P{resident of Arab Republic of Yemen from 18 Jul 1978 to 22 May 1990 and continued as unified Yemen President.
  • Presidents
  • Ali Abdullah Saleh (continued)...................01 Oct 1994 - 25 Feb 2012
    • Acting for Saleh
    • Abdu Rabu Mansour Hadi (1st time)...........04 Jun 2011 - 23 Sep 2011
    • Abdu Rabu Mansour Hadi (2nd time)...........22 Jan 2012 - 25 Feb 2012
  • Abdu Rabu Mansour Hadi...........................25 Feb 2012 - 06 Feb 2015
  • Continues in opposition at Aden 21 Feb - 25 Mar and 22 Sep - Oct 2015; in Saudi Arabia exile 26 Mar - 22 Sep 2015 and Since Oct 2015.
  • President of Supreme Revolutionary Committee
  • Muhammad Ali al-Houthi...........................06 Feb 2015 - 15 Aug 2016
  • President of Supreme Political Council
  • Saleh Ali al-Sammad..............................15 Aug 2016 - date
 
Republic of Yemen Currency: Rial = 100 fils.
In 1993, the first coins were issued for the Republic of Yemen. The value of rial against the United States dollar dropped significantly compared to 12.01 rials per dollar in early 1990s. Since the mid-1990s the Yemeni rial has been freely convertible. Though it dropped from YER 20 to approximately YER 215 against the U.S. dollar since then, the rial has been stable for several years. However, since 2010 the Central Bank had to intervene several times, resulting in a serious decline of foreign reserves. By late 2013, the Economic Intelligence Unit expects reserves to decline to approximately 1.3 months of imports over the following years, despite information that Saudi Arabia would transfer $1 billion to the Yemeni Central Bank. When Yemen unified, coins had been issued in North Yemen in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 fils and 1 rial. The fils denominations have all disappeared from circulation. In 1993, new coins were introduced by the Central Bank of Yemen in denominations of 1 and 5 rials. These were followed by 10 rials coins in 1995 and 20 rials in 2004.
 
AH 1414 - 1993
 

KM#25 One Rial. Year: AH1414 - 1993. Weight: 2.68 g. Metal: Stainless Steel. Diameter: 20-sided; 20.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Monnaie de Paris, Pessac. Obverse: "البنك المركزى اليمنى" (Central bank of Yemen) written at the top section. Value "١" (1) with "ريال" (Rial) written within the center circle. Date "١٩٩٣-١٤١٤" (1993-1414) written at the bottom. Reverse: "الجمهورية اليمنية" (Republic of Yemen) emblem in the center. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

KM#26 5 Rials. Year: AH1414 - 1993. Weight: 4.39 g. Metal: Stainless Steel. Diameter: 22-sided; 23.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Monnaie de Paris, Pessac. Obverse: "البنك المركزى اليمنى" (Central bank of Yemen) written at the top section. Value "٥" (5) with "ريالات" (Rials) written within the center circle. Date "١٩٩٣-١٤١٤" (1993-1414) written at the bottom. Reverse: Central Bank of Yemen building in the center. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 1414 (1993), AH 1420 (2000), AH 1421 (2001) and AH 1425 (2004).
 
AH 1416 - 1995
 

KM#27 10 Rials. Year: AH1416 - 1995. Weight: 6.02 g. Metal: Stainless Steel. Diameter: 26.00 mm. Edge: Flatly reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Monnaie de Paris, Pessac. Obverse: "البنك المركزى اليمنى" (Central bank of Yemen) written at the top section. Value "١٠" (10) with "ريالات" (Rials) written within the center circle. Date "١٩٩٥-١٤١٦" (1995-1416) written at the bottom. Reverse: Central Bank of Yemen building in the center. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: AH 1416 (1995), AH 1424 (2003) and AH 1430 (2009).
 
AH 1420 - 2000
 

Same as above KM#26 (5 Rials) but...

Year: AH1420 - 2000. Weight: 4.50 g.

 
AH 1421 - 2001
 

Same as above KM#26 (5 Rials) but...

Year: AH1421 - 2001. Weight: 4.40 g.

 
AH 1424 - 2003
 

Same as above KM#27 (10 Rials) but...

Year: AH1424 - 2003. Weight: 6.11 g.

 
AH 1425 - 2004
 

Same as above KM#26 (5 Rials) but...

Year: AH1425 - 2004. Weight: 4.48 g.

KM#29 20 Rials. Year: AH1425 - 2004. Weight: 7.05 g. Metal: Bi-Metallic; Brass plated Steel in center and Stainless Steel ring. Diameter: 29.85 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Monnaie de Paris, Pessac. Obverse: "البنك المركزى اليمنى" (Central bank of Yemen) written in Arabic at the top section. Value "٢٠" (20) with "ريال" (Rial) and "20 RIALS" written within the center circle. Date "٢٠٠٤" (2004) written at the left side and "١٤٢٥" (1425) written at the right side. "CENTRAL BANK OF YEMEN" written at the bottom section. Reverse: "سقطرى" (Socotra) written in Arabic at the top section. Socotra Island Brothers Tree in the center circle. Large dot on both sides. "شجرة الاخوين" (Brothers Tree) written in Arabic at the bottom section. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

KM#30 500 Rials. Year: AH1425 - 2004. Weight: 21.00 g. Metal: Copper-Nickel-Zinc - Silver Plated. Diameter: 35.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Damascus, Syria. Obverse: "البنك المركزى اليمنى" (Central bank of Yemen) written in Arabic at the top section. Value "٥٠٠" (500) with "ريال" (Rial) and "500 RIALS" written within the center. Date "٢٠٠٤" (2004) written at the left side and "١٤٢٥" (1425) written at the right side. "CENTRAL BANK OF YEMEN" written at the bottom section. Reverse: "سنعاء عاصمة الثقافة العربية ٢٠٠٤" (Sana'a capital of Arab culture 2004) written in Arabic at the top section. Sana'a 2004 logo in the center. Large dot on both sides. "SANA'A 2004 THE ARAB CULTURE CAPITAL" written at the bottom section. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.

Note: KM#31 exists as 1000 Rial in Brass - Silver Plated of weight 70.00 g and diameter: 60.00 mm.

 
AH 1427 - 2006
 

KM#29a 20 Rials. Year: AH1427 - 2006. Weight: 6.75 g. Metal: Stainless Steel. Diameter: 30.00 mm. Edge: Reeded. Alignment: Medal. Mint: Monnaie de Paris, Pessac. Obverse: "البنك المركزى اليمنى" (Central bank of Yemen) written in Arabic at the top section. Value "٢٠" (20) with "ريال" (Rial) and "20 RIALS" written within the center circle. Date "٢٠٠٦" (2006) written at the left side and "١٤٢٧" (1427) written at the right side. "CENTRAL BANK OF YEMEN" written at the bottom section. Reverse: "سقطرى" (Socotra) written in Arabic at the top section. Socotra Island Brothers Tree in the center circle. Large dot on both sides. "شجرة دم الأخوين" (Blood Brothers Tree) written in Arabic at the bottom section. Mintage: N/A. Mintage Years: One year type.
 
AH 1430 - 2009
 

Same as above KM#27 (10 Rials) but...

Year: AH1430 - 2009. Weight: 6.09 g.

 
 
Irresistible comments: In the end, I would first thank JOCHEN RENGER from Germany. He came to Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and insisted to met me. I redundantly decided to see him on 27th Aug 2013. During our conversation, he suddenly started to give a very valuable 30 minutes session on various varieties in Mutawakkilite Kingdom (Imam Yahya and Imam Ahmad) on Yemen coins. I was impressed to hear about such varieties and also got surprised that Krause publication has not listed such types. Mr. Renger established and contacted Sultan Ghalib II bin Awadh al-Qu'aiti and thus confirmed the existence of authentic counterstamps on Yemen coins. Based on his information, I started my hunt on various varieties. I tried to get hold of coin dealers and colleagues from Yemen but got much avail. Luckily from Ebay, I met HEMENDU VRAJLAL DESAI from Rajkot, India in April 2016. His father was living in Yemen and brought many kilos of copper and small silver Yemen coins back to India in 1965. These coins were in his father's bank vaults till 2003. These coins were discovered after his father's death. Mr. Hemendu is now selling these coins on Ebay. I requested him to send the scans of various 1/80 Riyal copper coins (AH 1350-1381), 1/10 Silver Riyal 5-sided coins for various date types (AH 1371-1380) and 1/40 Riyal torch types (AH 1382-1384). Mr. Hemendu saw my keen interest and took time from his busy schedule in scanning around 450 coins for two months and arranging them in his room every weekend. I use to study these scans and select the coins I wanted for my collection. I really appreciate and thank him for his time and helping me to find these varieties. Finally after 2.5 years of my hunt on Yemen coins, I have decided to added and share these varieties in December 2016 on my Yemen webpages as information/knowledge to coin collectors.
 
 
 
Countries / Territories
 
Chiefa Coins